A Generic Risk Score for classifying Diabetes

AGeneric Risk Score for classifying Diabetes

Comprehensiveand latest Research findings point to increased rates of prevalencein diabetes. Trends in most of the major researchers also point tothe fact that more than 40% of people with diabetes are seniorcitizens, approaching the age of 70 years. It has been estimated thatdiabetes patients within the age bracket will reach 60% by 2050. Thishas had an impact on the resources and costs of health careassociated with the management of this segment of the population. Asa matter of fact, More than 200 billion dollars is budgeted annuallyfor health care costs for diabetic patients [ CITATION Pet03 l 1033 ].

Thebest approach to preventing diabetes involves finding out individualswith increased risks. In that regard, several tools have beendeveloped i.e. verbal glucose tolerance tests, several questionnairesto find people with high risks and fasting glucose measurement amongothers. The EZSCAN is another diagnostic tool utilizing sweat glandfunctions to identify diabetes and risks of insulin resistance. Amore recent study by scholars created fresh test tools of diagnosingdiabetes. In accordance to the research, genetic tests can beutilized by health care practitioners to distinguish between type 1and 2 diabetes among young adults [ CITATION Pet11 l 1033 ].

Thisparticular paper will look to utilize the evidence from the researchworks conducted by the scholars involved and outline more on thegeneric test tool. It will outline the main idea behind the researchfindings as well as the target populations. The research work inconsideration is “risk score of type 1 diabetes can assist indiscerning between type 1 and 2 diabetes among young adults” byRichard A. Oram. The study was conducted by University of Exeterresearchers who deemed it an effective tool in patient care anddiagnosis. As earlier portrayed, the research illustrates how generictests can be utilized to distinguish between the two types ofdiabetes among the young adults.

Mainidea of the research findings

Theincreasing obesity rates have made it quite intricate todifferentiate between type 1 and 2 diabetes among young adults. Inthat respect, numerous research works have been developed to find outthe involvement of generic variations on type 1 and 2 diabetes. Theresearch was meant to see if scores generated from similar genericvariants could be utilized in distinguishing between type 1 and 2among diabetic young adults. It could also calculate severedeficiency of insulin within the same group [CITATION Ric15 l 1033 ].

Thegeneric test was done on diabetic patients. The generic test tooldevised by Exeter team measures 30 generic variants in DNA and thencombines all risks related to them. All the risks are summarized in asingle score to determine the type of diabetes. If the score is hightypically more than 0.280, then the person is likely to suffer fromtype 1, whereas if it is low typically 0.234 then it is type 2.

Researchdesign and methods

Ageneric risk score (GRSs) was created from type 1 and 2 diabeticpatients. 30 generic variants in DNA are measured and the risksrelated to them combined. The generic test monitors abnormalities ingenes, chromosomes or proteins. Blood, tissues or body fluids aretaken to monitor the same. Prevalence of glutamic acid decarboxylaseantibody (GADAb) i.e. GADAb+ in blood samples is associated withdependence on insulin thereby insinuating type 1 diabetes. Apart fromshowing the scores, a glucose concentration of 126mg/dL or higherindicates type 2 diabetes. 100 mg/dL is normal whereas 100 to 120mg/dL indicates pre-diabetes.


Fromthe WTCCC, a type 1 diabetes generic score on 30 risk variants showeda high distinction of type 1 and 2 diabetes (AUC=0.88 [95 percent CI:0.87 – 0.89], Pless than 0.0001). Type 2 generic risk score showed littledistinctions (AUC=0.89). A type 1 diabetes generic risk score of morethan 0.280 indicates type 1 diabetes. A type 1 generic risk score ofless than 0.234 indicates type 2 diabetes.

Amongthe young adults, type 1 diabetes generic risk score showed progressin insulin deficiency (AUC = 0.87 [95 percent CI: 0.82 – 0.92], Pless than 0.0001). Clinical features and autoantibody status wereautonomous and additive analysts of insulin deficiency i.e. combinedAUC = 0.96 [95 percent CI: 0.94 – 0.99], P less than 0.0001.

Discussionof findings

Itis quite crucial to obtain appropriate diabetes diagnosis sincetreatments tend to differ. For instance, individuals with type 1diabetes need insulin treatment. This is because insulin thatproduces pancreatic beta-cells are damaged by autoimmune processes.Severe deficiency of endogenous insulin results in a dire need ofexogenous insulin and other additions like carbohydrates. On theother hand, type 2 diabetes is due to declining beta-cellfunctionality in resisting insulin. Initial management mainly entailsoral hypoglycemic agents or diet. More than 15% diabetic young adultsare categorized inappropriately thereby receiving incorrecttreatments. However, with this study, diabetic young adults can becorrectly identified in accordance to the type. In other words, youngadults suffering from type 1 diabetes can be correctly identifiedhence afforded correct treatment.

Significanceto the nursing practice

Thestudy correctly categorizes diabetic young adults in accordance tothe type i.e. type 1 or 2. It utilizes generic tests to distinguishbetween this two diabetes types. This is vital since in most casespatients tend to be misdiagnosed. Once insulin treatment begins, itis normally hard to reverse the process. Due to this study, healthcare practitioners can correctly distinguish type 1 and 2 diabeticpatients and accord them appropriate treatments.


Peter EH Schwarz, P. B. (2011). EZSCAN a new technology to detect diabetes risk. The British Journal of Diabetes &amp Vascular Disease, 158-160.

Peter, J. W. (2003). ABC OF DIABETES. London: BMJ Publishing Group .

Richard A Oram, K. P. (2015). A Type 1 diabetes genetic risk score can aid discrimination between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes in young adults. Exeter.