Analysisof Protocols Set by the CDC and Its Partners in Dealing with Ebola
Establishment of protocols to contain the Ebola virus
Biosafety Laboratory competency
Customs, Border and Quarantine Personnel
Interim guidelines for flight crew
Emergency response funds
United Nations partnership
The U.S government and agencies
Threatsfacing public health are numerous and could arise out a number offactors such as natural incidences, and inadvertent or intentionalhappenings. Nevertheless, while considering its nature, it becomesimperative that there should be a sufficient level of preparedness,to respond and quickly recuperate from such occurrences. The Centerfor Disease Control (CDC) has the role responding and coming up withappropriate protocol for controlling and seeing-off such events. Thispaper examines the modus operandi set by the CDC upon outbreak of theEbola virus recently. Such procedure is aimed at ensuring that lesspeople are exposed to the virus, particularly in ports of entry intothe motherland since they are at the highest risk of coming intocontact with contaminated material that has roots in any of theaffected countries. Still, it protects medical practitioners andother workers who are at the front line in combating this menace toensure there are proper procedures in place to reduce their chancesof exposure while at the field or their respective work stations.
Inaddition to working effectively, the CDC has gone further andestablished partnerships with other agencies that have had asubstantial contribution to containment of disease outbreaks acrossthe world. These partners play their respective roles either throughfinancing, implementation or as direct support for CDC staff toensure they have all the technical and logistical support they needto work meritoriously. It has thus worked hand-in-hand, not only inthis epidemic, but for years before with trusted partners such as theAmerican government, U.N, WHO, and international bodies among otherrelevant stakeholders. Without them, the organization woulddefinitely feel a slump in muscle-power that is necessary in fightingsuch medical predicaments as they emerge.
TheOutbreak of the Ebola called for the CDC to work promptly that ledthem to come up with various protocols to help hold the virus at bayon a global scale. They established protocols for affected hospitalsto adhere to in the process of dealing with an identified or allegedcase of the highly contagious virus. These protocols encompasseverything: from the garments of health workers to handling ofinfected corpses. First, the protocol designates that every healthworker is required by the order to be dressed in personal protectivegear. Similarly, it recommends that patients must be kept inisolation with all their beddings and provisions covered in plastic(Occupational Safety & Health Administration, 2016). Likewise,use of needles should be on a minimal scale and have to be handledwith great care. Individuals who have any form of indicatorscorrelated to Ebola ought to pursue medical scrutiny immediately andbe observed for an extra 21 days. These protocols go further andspecify that an infected body be wrapped in plastic, and individualshandling the body be in protective gear and take due care.
Inaddition, Protection of laboratory workers was not neglected aspersons who handle samples having the virus, including those used indiagnostics as part of scientific studies and development work isparamount (Iwen, 2014). The CDC outlines that personnel in medicaland research test centers manipulate such samples while observing astrict observance of set precautions and applications preciselydesigned for diseases that can be transferred through contact withinfected material (Kortepeter, 2008). These precautions have beenfound to be operational in protecting personnel from exposure to thevirus, only if followed aptly.
TheMMWR, which is part of the CDC, also features guidelines onproficiency in biosafety laboratories. A valuable matrix designatesstaff experiences over a number of skill levels such as: detectingand categorizing hazards regulatory of potential contactsimplementation of executive controls, and preparation and response toemergencies (Kortepeter, 2008). Most notably, the protocol stipulatesthat, supervision of samples drawn from suspected or definite Ebolavictims, or samples of the virus used for research be safely storedin containment biosafety cabinets (Iwen, 2014).
Customs,Border and Quarantine Personnel
Essentially,employees involved as security officers, border guards, immigration,and public health or any other form of analysis and quarantine workare susceptible because of their work description. They may comeacross persons bearing EHD what are entering U.S. ports from foreigncountries that have been affected by the ongoing contagion.Additionally, they undertake tasks like assessment of baggage, cargo,and aircraft or vessels arriving at ports of entry, which might beopen to risk elements such as contaminated blood and fluids orpossibly unknown infectious or contaminated substances, objects, orsurfaces. A significant number of these recommendations can be validto customs, border control, and quarantine workers.
Normally,employers are necessitated to provide protective apparel and gear forworkers who are more likely to execute errands that could lead themto getting in contact with the virus, including teams that are taskedwith the duty of cleaning discharge from sick passengers, possiblyfrom the virus. The CDC has established functional recommendationsthat make surgical masks available to sick travelers thus minimizingthe quantity of infected precipitation ejected into the air whensneezing, coughing or even talking. People found to be sickly may beasked in a kind manner to don surgical masks when interacting withimmigration, border personnel or quarantine workers (OccupationalSafety & Health Administration, 2016).
TheCDC also came up with provisional directives for aircrews, cargohandlers and cleaning personnel. Since, they are likely to haveexposure to Ebola virus in various ways, including susceptibility togetting into contact with infectious materials in restrooms anddirect involvement with individuals suffering from EHF. As example,passengers coming from places established as having confirmed casesof outbreak pose a great risk to personnel in the transport industry,particularly airline, and shipping industry.
Further,the CDC issued temporary U.S. guidelines that cover observing andtransferring people with probable exposure to the Virus to supportCDC staff and public health partners engaged in the response. Theguidance provided public health authorities and partners withrecommendations for specialist care accorded to potentially exposedpeople and for evaluating their projected travel, inclusive ofapplication of movement limitations when designated.
Similarly,the regulation formed a critical foundation of CDC’s ‘Ebolaresponse’ through provision of framework intended at handling riskin a definite population, and the establishment of equivocalprinciples on which public health authorities, federal associates,state governments, and additional stakeholders could derive afoundation for their specific policies. It was significant inaddressing stakeholder concerns and mitigated risk to communities andtravelers without unnecessarily restricting individual liberties(Occupational Safety & Health Administration, 2016).
TheCDC works with various organizations to enhance containment thisensures effectiveness and efficiency. If a pandemic occurs, theorganization would conduct a thorough analysis and offer methodicalassistance to metropolises, states, and international allies dealingwith the epidemic. Such assistance would comprise: lab testing, andanalysis, consultation, patient care, tracing of contacts, andcontamination control.
The‘Foundation-Emergency-Response-Fund’ aids the CDC in respondingto emergencies in public health and when required, allows CDCprofessionals on the front-lines of a crisis to immediately makepurchases of specialized equipment or services necessary to get thedesired work done. The CDC works in closely with various international agencies and institutions including the WHO, UnitedNations through its agencies like: UNICEF among other associatedagencies such as the UN Foundation:, federal agencies within theU.S., the World Bank , private foundations, globalhealth organizations as well as universities (Global Health, 2015).
TheCDC backs WHO`s efforts by facilitating input of CDC staff toappropriate posts within WHO’s structure, with distinctconsideration given to the WHO Regional Bureaus, state healthagencies and International Health Regulators (HHS, 2005). These legalsteps reflect their endorsements for border controls (WHO, 2005).Similarly, transnational suppression procedures can be extensive,especially when considering: entry and departure screening, traveladvisories, commentary, physicalinspection or management of sick persons, assortment and broadcast ofpassenger data, and health alerts
UnitedNations Fund also provides funding and facilitates the CDC’s workwith a yearly grant of a hundred million dollars that providesfinancial backing to U.N agencies for missions in the areas ofpopulation, women`s and children health, and the environment. The CDCalso works in partnership on strategic and practical issues, aidingto shape the UNF`s health program in developing countries such ascontainment of outbreaks (Global Health, 2015).
Moreover,the U.S. government, through USAID has had a long-lasting liaisonwith the CDC to back mutual global health goals The FIC (FogartyInternational Center), located at the NIH (National Institutes ofHealth) functions as the locus for inter-agency cooperation ininternational health. Still, the DOS (Department of State) is afundamental partner in implementing the CDC`s programs abroad andactivities such as those of control of the disease. The DOS is alsoaccountable for guaranteeing that all overseas programs andactivities propagated by the American government are dependable withreference to the overall objectives of U.S. foreign policy such asenforcement of the CDC protocols (Global Health, 2015). By use of itsconsulates and consular corps around the globe, the Department offerssafety and support for agency employees on long- and short-termprojects. The CDC also works with the private sector that plays avital role facilitating the CDC roles. They offer support to programsin areas important to the CDC such as education of the public onEbola and the safety measures to take to avoid contamination this wasdone by religious institutions.
TheCDC’s assistance in building a viable public health capabilitynecessitates interdisciplinary cooperation between epidemiologists,clinicians, veterinarians, laboratory scientists, health educators,among other scientists and program administrators. The CDC joinsforces with nations interested in establishing their independentpublic health institutions and prioritizes its effort on developmentof workforce (Global Health, 2015). This was visible during the Ebolaoutbreak the CDC shared information with the MOHs on its managementand guidelines for containment.
Inconclusion, the CDC has an enormous responsibility in ensuring globalhealth threats are contained trough setting up protocols foridentifying the mode contamination of that disease and its naturethey are able to minimize adverse impacts. To achieve its goal itdoes not work in isolation but rather with various internationalgroups and public and private institutions to implement itsresponsibilities effectively.
Global Health. (2015, January 7). CDC Global Health Partnerships. Retrieved from Center for disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/partnerships.htm
HHS. (2005). Control of Communicable Diseases (Proposed Rule). 42 Parts 70 and 71. 2005. C.F.R., 70-71.
Iwen, P. C. (2014). An Integrated Approach to Laboratory Testing for Patients with Ebola Virus Disease. Lab Medicine, e146-e151.
Kortepeter, M. G. (2008). Managing Potential Laboratory Exposure to Ebola Virus by Using a Patient Biocontainment Care Unit.". Emerging Infectious Diseases, 881.
Occupational Safety & Health Administration. (2016, February 29). Control and Prevention. Retrieved from United States Department of Labour: https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/ebola/control_prevention.html
WHO. (2005, February 29). WHO SARS Risk Assessment and Preparedness Framework. Retrieved from WHO: http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/CDS_CSR_ARO_2004_2.pdf