Ancient Egypt Tell el-Amarna

AncientEgypt: Tell el-Amarna

AncientEgypt: Tell el-Amarna

Tellel Amarna is an ancient locality or city that was constructed inEgypt near river Nile and about 100 km from Asyut. The city isconsidered as a rich source of material remnants of life and domesticarchitecture of the Egyptian people.

Annotatedbibliography

Brehm,T. (2014). Social stratification amongst non-elite housing of grid 12At El-Amarna, Egypt. UW-LJournal of Undergraduate Research,17, 1-27.

Brehmaddressed the issue of the emergence of social classes during theel-Amarna period, which can be indicated by different architecturaldesign and household possessions in different ancient houses thathave been discovered at Tell El-Amarna. The author argues that thetwo tiers of the wealthy and the poor social classes gained a cleardistinction during the el-Amarna period. The difference between theelite and the non-elite classes started during the el-Amarna periodand progressed to the New Kingdom. The purpose of the article wasachieved by conducting a comparative analysis of houses located inel-Amarna and the nearby villages, including their design, sign, andmaterials found in those houses.

Brehmfound out that eight houses located at Grid 12 were owned bynon-elite families and they surrounded larger houses that were ownedby the elite classes. That fact that non-elite houses surroundedhouses owned by the elite classes implied that the on-elite classesliving in El-Amarna were servants of the elite classes. Archeologistsdistinguished the houses because of their differences in terms ofsizes and the quality of wares discovered in those houses. Some ofthe items discovered in houses owned by the elite classes includeglassware, quartzite, and ivory. The article was authored in 2014,which indicates that it is quite recent. Therefore, the article isrelevant and a useful source that provides information about theemergence of classes in el-Amarna.

Kemp,J. (1976). The city of el-Amarna as a source for the study of urbansociety in ancient Egypt. WorldArchaeology,9 (2), 123-139.

Kempanalyzed the relationship between the housing models and patterns inthe ancient city of Tell el-Amarna to the development of the moderncities and organization in the contemporary society. Kemp argues thatthe city of Tell el-Amarna differed from the rest of the ancientcities (such Thebe) in many ways, which implies that little can belearned from archeological discovered of Tell el-Amarna about theurbanization trends in Egypt. The purpose of the article was pursuedby analyzing settlement patters in el-Amarna. For example,residential areas discovered by archeologists indicate uniquespaciousness, which means that archeological studies on Tellel-Amarna cannot be generalized to the development of other cities.Kemp presents the argument by reviewing the articles of archeologicaldiscoveries that had been made by the time the article was beingwritten.

AlthoughTell el-Amarna bears little resemblance to other ancient cities, Kempargues that it should not be dismissed entirely as a source of someaspects of the urban society of the New Kingdom. This is becausethere the excavation that has been successfully done is quitelimited. The author concludes that it is possible to deriveinformation that relates to the New Kingdom from Tell el-Amarna, butsuch an assertion can either stand of fall depending on archeologicaldiscoveries that will be made in other places. Therefore, the currentcomparison of the archeological findings should be limited toimpressionistic assertions. Although the article was published somedecades ago, it presents significant discoveries made byarcheologists about the ancient city of Tell el-Amarna, and how theseaspects contributed towards the development of the New Kingdom.Therefore, the article is a useful source for a research that focuseson the study of Tell el-Amarna.

Kemp,B., Stevens, A., Dabbs, R., Zabecki, M. &amp Rose, C. (2013). Life,death, and beyond in Akhenatens Egypt: Excavating the South Tombscemetery at Amarna. Antiquity,87, 64-78.

Thearticle discusses the difference and the co-existence between theelite and non-elite classes that occupied the region of el-Amarna.The purpose of this journal article is to indicate how the two socialclasses depended on each other. The purpose of the article waspursued by analyzing the human remains that were recovered fromdifferent tombs located in and near the city of el-Amarna. Thisexcavation and analysis process focused on differences between thehuman remains discovered in tombs suspected to belong to the eliteand those that were suspected to belong to non-elite classes.

Afterconducting the analysis, the authors identified that men buried intombs for the non-elite class were short and they bone were broken orhad numerous injuries. The bones excavated from tombs that belongedto the elite classes were fine and unbroken. The differencessuggested that the non-elite class did the hard work that subjectedthem to the risk of bone injuries and experienced nutritionalproblems that limited their body sizes. The authors concluded thatthe closeness of the tombs as well as the homes for the two classeswas an indication of interdependence among them. This is a usefularticle given that it was published recently and it is based onempirical evidence obtained from excavation exercises.

Sellers,W. &amp Fattovich, R. (2007). Introductionto the Archeology of ancient Egypt.Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Sellerspresent the analysis of the changes that occurred during theel-Amarna, which have been confirmed by the archeological discoveriesthat have been made in the ancient city of Tell El-Amarna. Sellersand Fattovich argue that the el-Amarna period and the ancient city oftell El-Amarna represents a significant transition that introducedEgyptians to developments resulted in the modern society. The purposeof the article has been achieved through the analysis and review ofliterature of articles documenting archaeological discoveries(including the settlement patters) that have been achieved in theancient city of Tell el-Amarna.

Anexample of the findings reported in the article indicates that theKing controlled the staple for his workers and not the temple as itwas the case in other ancient cities. This has been confirmed by thediscovery of a large granary (about 2,000 square meters) close to thepalace. In addition, the results of the archeological excavation ofthe 70 small houses in the eastern side of the city indicated thatthe community that lived in e-Amarna during the el-Amarna periodconstructed houses that consisted of a living room, court, room, tworear rooms, block staircase, and a vegetable garden close to thehouse, which is typical of a modern homestead. The authors concludethat archaeological discoveries made about the ancient city of Tellel-Amarna show that significant changes that shaped the modernEgyptian society took place during the el-Amarna period. The articleis a useful source that informs much about the home plans andarchitectural styles used during the el-Amarna period and how theycontributed towards the development of the New Kingdom.

References

Brehm,T. (2014). Social stratification amongst non-elite housing of grid 12At El-Amarna, Egypt. UW-LJournal of Undergraduate Research,17, 1-27.

Kemp,J. (1976). The city of el-Amarna as a source for the study of urbansociety in ancient Egypt. WorldArchaeology,9 (2), 123-139.

Kemp,B., Stevens, A., Dabbs, R., Zabecki, M. &amp Rose, C. (2013). Life,death, and beyond in Akhenatens Egypt: Excavating the South Tombscemetery at Amarna. Antiquity,87, 64-78.

Sellers,W. &amp Fattovich, R. (2007). Introductionto the Archeology of ancient Egypt.Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.