Annotated Bibliography The Return of Measles


AnnotatedBibliography: The Return of Measles

Lui,F. et al (2015). “The role of vaccination coverage, individualbehaviors, and the public health response in the control of measlesepidemics: an agent-based simulation for California”. BMCPublic Health.15: p447. DOI:

Measleswas eliminated in the United States more than a decade ago. Despitethis, there are some susceptible individuals among which measles hasbeen reported. This susceptible group has an impact on the likelihoodof an outbreak, even in cases where vaccination coverage is high. Oneof the most effective methods that have been used to controloutbreaks of measles and other infectious diseases has been contacttracing among clustered populations. This article reports analternative model that can be used in responding to measles outbreak.The “agent based simulation model of measles transmission” used“the framework for reconstruction epidemiological dynamic and thesynthetic population database”. The transmission was based on humaninteractions in social places. The result of the study reemphasizedthe importance of immunization as the primary method of controllingmeasles outbreaks. Additionally, based on the findings of the study,investigations of contact and clustering of immunity can also play acritical role in enhancing the effectiveness of measles outbreaksresponse. The peer reviewed article makes conclusion based on thefindings of a credible scientific study. The article will beessential in the study because it outlines the effectiveness ofinterventions such as immunization, clustering and contactinvestigation in dealing with measles outbreak.

Marinovic,A. et al (2012). “Effectiveness and timing of vaccination duringschool measles outbreak”. EmergingInfectious Diseases.18.9 (Sept. 2012): p1405.DOI:

Measlesis a highly contagious disease that causes death in both developedand developing countries. Measures can effectively be preventedthrough immunization. Although there is adequate vaccination coveragein Europe, outbreaks of measles occurs mainly in clustered schools.This article reports the result of a study where the researcherscreated a stochastic outbreak model in a public school to determinethe effectiveness of interventions during outbreaks. The studyindicated that delays in outbreak response vaccination campaignsduring an outbreak have a huge impact on the progress and size of theoutbreak. The article is credible and provides accurate and reliableinformation. It will be useful in identifying the timelines inresponding to measles outbreak.

McMorrrow,M. L. et al (2009). “Measles outbreak in South Africa, 2003-2005”.SouthAfrican Medical Journal.99(5), p314.

Increasedactivities on measles control have resulted in reduction of measlesoutbreaks and related death in sub-Saharan Africa. These activitiesled to the elimination of measles in South Africa in the late 1990s.As a result of increased surveillance and relatively good vaccinationcoverage, less than sixty annual cases were reported between 1999 and2002 while no death attributed to measles was reported during thesame period. However, in 2003, the highly contiguous measles viruswas introduced in South Africa from Mozambique resulting into anoutbreak that lasted two years. There were 1676 confirmed cases ofdisease during the outbreak. This article investigated the role HIVin the outbreak. The study involved tracing patient who had confirmedcases of measles in Johannesburg to determine their vaccinationstatus and HIV status. The study established that the outbreak wasprimarily caused by inadequate vaccination of the population and notHIV status. The article is credible and reliable. It will beessential in determining the relationship between measles outbreaksand other disease such as HIV and AIDS and how they influencemortality rate.

Yeung,L. et al. (2006). “A limited measles outbreak in a highlyvaccinated US boarding school”. Pediatrics.116(6): p1287.

Since1960s, measles has been a preventable disease in the United Statesthrough vaccination. However, it is a highly contagious disease andtherefore, confirmed cases of measles are important public healthissues. Although the level of immunization coverage in the UnitedStates is relatively high, a measles outbreak emerged in Pennsylvaniaschool in 2003. Over six hundred students were affected by theoutbreak. This article presents a report of investigation of theoutbreak including the source, control measures and effectiveness ofmeasles vaccine. The study established that despite high coverage ofvaccines, vigilance by public health officers as well as schools isnecessary in preventing outbreaks. The article provides a credibleand unbiased analysis of the case. The article will provide anoverview on how the American health care system can deal with ameasles outbreak.


Measlesis an important public health issue. Although it is highlycontagious, it can effectively be prevented by immunization. Thehardest part of the assignment is selecting the most appropriatearticles for the study. The most important lesson from the assignmentis that the importance of annotated bibliography in research. Theannotated bibliography requires me to note the main arguments andfindings of the article. This requires me to read the article twiceor thrice in order to accurately report the findings or arguments onthe article. This is essential because it aids in the understandingof the topic under enquiry. I have also learnt how to search for andselect appropriate reference materials for in a research. I havelearnt how to select the most appropriate sources from a databasewith thousands of articles.