ArtificialIntelligence (AI) started as early as the year 1950 when man thoughtof fantastical life improvements that could enable him to copy theway human intelligence works (Bowles 2010, p.22). He tried this byuse of machines though by then it could not yield any fruits. Thereare advent fairy tales from the ancient periods that have contributedto the idea of AI. Recently, man has come up with technologicalinterventions that show that we are getting close to AI. This essaywill focus on the definitions of AI as it has been put forward bysome scientists and try to highlight how it is different from humanintelligence. Likewise, it will show whether computers can think likehuman beings by use of the Turing Test.
Themisunderstanding that exists as far as the concept of intelligence isconcerned has led to difficulties in giving the exact definition ofthe term Artificial Intelligence. But machines, especially, computersare structured to work in a similar manner to human beings this canbe defined and be explained from step to step. John McCarthy, who iscommonly known as the father of AI, organized a conference in theyear 1956 where he wanted to put his talent into the application andmake it known to all people (Guo 2015, p.5). He also wanted theexpertise of other people concerning machine intelligence throughbrainstorming (Russell, Norvig, and Davis 2010, p.45). This field isknown as AI since the research projects that he organized were knownby this term. In this workshop, it was said that all the aspects oflearning or intelligence could be fed into a machine and that themachine would simulate those aspects (Poole & Mackworth 2010,p.38). After the workshop, necessary efforts were taken to bring AIin its immediate stage. But more advanced definitions have beenbrought up to explain what AI means. For instance, Minsky explainedthat AI is the science where machines are used to perform tasks thatneed the intelligence of a human being. This field has now advanced,and its application is now common in every part of the world. AmnestyInternational is a body that was set up to monitor the intelligencetechniques as well organizing competitions for people to put theirtalents into the application (Whitby 2012, p.67). The body also fundsgroups and individuals who want to engage in research activities thatrelate to AI. Tools from different disciplines are therefore usedwhen doing research about AI.
Acomputer program can only be considered an artificial intelligence ifit passes past the Turning Test. Turning Test was developed in the1950 by Alan Turing during a seminar where he was talking aboutComputing machinery and intelligence as a sole method that should beused to gauge if a computer possessed a thought that would make it beconsidered as part of the artificial intelligence (Shieber 2011,p.502). The turning test developed from an old concept that consistedof an imitation game with three players namely a man, a woman, and aninterrogator. Both did not see one another, but they communicated viateletype where the man was to convince the interrogator of his genderto be a man and the woman was to convince the interrogator of hergender that she was a woman. The interrogator was then supposed todifferentiate between the two correctly. Chat programs were used asthe common contestants where they were chatting with human beings andby imitating the responses that the human beings gave while they werein the chat room environment. Different versions of the Turning Testwere then used to put the chat programs into the test so that theirintelligence could be tested (Shi 2011, p.56). The rationale ofworking was similar to that of an imitation game where there werethree players as well a computer, human being, and an interrogator.Both the human being and the computer presented themselves before theinterrogator as humans, and the interrogator had to differentiate thetwo to find out who was human and who the computer was in real sense(Shieber 2011, p.503). This test has been put into use by severalcompanies like the Google while using the search operations and smartbrowsing as well.
TheAI of a computer has been put in practice to solve the accountingmodels in several industries. The AI also determines therelationships that may exist between the elements that have beenidentified in the accounting model. For instance, banks have employedthe use of AI systems to organize most of their operations in therequired manner. The investment in stocks that the banks get involvedin as well as the management of properties is simplified by the useof intelligence systems. In an experiment that was performed in theyear 2001 in the simulated financial trading field completion, therobots did better than the human beings in all aspects (Whitby 2012,p.77). Claims that are beyond human, like the norm of the financialinstitutions, are better solved by the use of artificial neuralnetwork systems. The systems have done better than the humaninvestigation. The human beings are better when it comes toinnovation and invention a feature that is not in AI.
Theadvancement in AI has raised anxiety and fear among the human beingsbecause of what is about to be created. Science is advancing rapidlybeyond what we normally see in the movies (Rusell et al. 2010,p.105). Though it is said that creation of a superhuman artificialintelligence is far, the developments in technology show thatanything is a possibility concerning artificial intelligence. Theintegration of technology and knowledge can produce the unexpectedAI. Machines will be able to perform any activity that human beingscarry out in the near future, and this should raise concerns of fearamong humans concerning the possible emergence of this superhuman AIthat will come up soon.
Theuse of artificial intelligence has been extended to the discipline ofmedicine. The AI systems have helped the organization of the bedschedules as well as helping management with the rotation stafforganization. All the medical information required by the medicalprofessionals can be obtained by the use of these AI systems. Theneural networks that use artificial systems as well have helped thedoctors perform the medical diagnosis where they perform the servicesthat can be performed by the machine differential diagnosis (Shi2011, p.63). The use of the systems has extended to other fields likecriminal identification and solving the security problems among manyother applications.
Theconnection between artificial intelligence and technology hasproduced results that have caused fear among many people followingthe innovation and invention activities that have emerged. Despitethe use of AI in different fields, human intelligence remains thebest and replacing it will take some years. Because of the ongoinginnovations and inventions, we are expecting anything to happen inthe science of artificial intelligence in the near future.
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