Belanger, D., Williams, J., and Arthur, N. “Casinos and economic

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Belanger,D., Williams, J., and Arthur, N. “Casinos and economic well-being:Evaluating the Alberta first nations’ experience”. TheJournal of Gambling Business and Economics5.1 (2011): 23-46. Web.&lthttp://www.academia.edu/1098059/_Casinos_and_Economic_Well-Being_Evaluating_the_Alberta_First_Nations_Experience._&gt

Thethree authors, who are professors at the University of Lethbridge,studied the relationship between the economic wellbeing of theindigenous people or the first nation people and casinos. The authorsargue that, although casinos are associated with numerous healthissues (such as the risk of drunkenness), the heavy investment madeto establish more casinos for the first nation has contributedtowards the economic well-being more than any other economic stimulusstrategy in the history of indigenous people. The study revealed thatcasinos have been contributing about $ 26.7 billion or revenue to thegovernment annually, which comes from 233 Indian tribes that operateabout 411 casinos in about 8 states. The economic strategy thatinvolves the use of casinos to enhance the economic program has beenreplicated in the U.S. and Canada, resulting in creation of Jobs forthe indigenous people. Although the article is peer-reviewed, itsfindings are based on the review of literature of other authors andgovernment reports, which denied the authors the chance to determinethe credibility of the data. However, the article is a usefulresource that informs about the relationship between casinos and theeconomic well-being of indigenous people.

Belanger,D., Williams, J. and Arthur, N. “Assessing the impact of theintroduction of casinos in two Northern Alberta first nationcommunities”. AmericanReview of Canadian Studies42.1 (2012): 1-19, Web.

Theauthors are professors at the University of Lethbridge and present anargument that the First Nations casinos have both positive andnegative effects. The authors pursued the purpose of their article byanalyzing the economic impact of the two casinos operated byindigenous people in Alberta, where data were collected using thefocus group strategy. The authors identified that the revenue earnedfrom the First Nations casinos increased from $ 13.5 million in 2006to about 104 million in 2010, besides providing thousands of jobs tothe First Nations people. Although the focus group help researcherscollect primary data from respondents, the respondents often fail togive their personal opinion, which implies limits the reliability ofthe article. However, the article provides a critical analysis of theeconomic benefits of casinos to indigenous people, which makes it auseful source.

Belenger,Y. FirstNations gaming in Canada.Manitoba: University of Manitoba Press, 2011. Web.

Belenger,as associate professor at the University of Lethbridge, discussesmany ways in which casinos and games played in casinos havecontributed towards the socioeconomic development of the aboriginalpeople. Belenger argues that casinos and games played them have notonly contributed towards negative effects (such as pathologicalgambling) that are known to many people, but they have numeroussocioeconomic benefits to the local people. Belenger stated thatgaming brings people together, giving them the opportunity to discusstrade and ways in which they can collaborate to enhance theireconomic well-being. This discussion has been achieved by referringto other articles and including personal opinion. The personalopinion limits the reliability of the book. However, the book isstill a useful source that provides a new dimension of viewing therole of casinos in the lives of the Aboriginal people.

Currie,L., Wild, T., Schopflocher, P., Laing, L., Veugelers, P. and Parlee,B. “Racial discrimination, post traumatic stress, and gamblingproblems among urban aboriginal adults in Canada”. Journalof Gambling Studies1 (2012): 1-25. Print.

Theauthors studied the association between gambling and traumaticdisorder among the aboriginal people. The purpose of the article waspursued by conducting a survey of 380 regular attendants of the localcasinos. The authors identified that about 80 % of the regular casinocustomers feel discriminated against by the dominant races. Thismeans that the majority of the aboriginal people do not go to casinosfor economic gains, but as an attempt to reduce traumatic stress. Theuse of cross-sectional design coupled with the limited number ofparticipants reduced the generalizability of the findings reported inthe article. However, the article is based on the empirical evidence,which provides useful information on how casinos affect the customerspsychological, thus reduces their ability to engage in economicactivities.

StaticsCanada. The aboriginal government sector in the Canadian economicaccounts. StatisticsCanada.2016. Web. 12 March 2016.

Thearticle addresses the economic contribution of casinos towards theeconomic status of the aboriginal people in Canada. The purpose ofthe article was accomplished by analyzing data from the governmentrecords. The article states that the Aboriginal governments earnedabout $ 7 billion in the year 2007 from the revenue collected by theprovincial government from casinos compared to royalty revenue of %500 million. The revenue collected from casinos annually is used toaddress the economic challenges faced by the aboriginal people, whichare usually discriminated against by the majority. The articlesupports the establishment of casinos was a strategy to enhance theeconomic well-being of the aboriginal people. Overreliance on thegovernment records to drive the argument limited the capacity of theauthors to include the opinions of the local people. However, thearticle is a reliable source that informs about economic benefits ofcasinos, which is achieved through revenue collection.

Hayward,K. Thecosts and benefits of gaming: A literature review with emphasis onNova Scotia.Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Gaming Foundation, 2004. Print.

Hayward,a researcher at the Nova Scotia Gaming Foundation, discussed thecost-benefit of the games that are conducted in Casinos with a focuson their economic impact on the aboriginals. The author achieved thepurpose of the article by performing a literature review of crediblearticles that addressed the cost as well as the economic benefits ofcasinos and games to the society. The author identified that casinosresult in an increase in the government revenue and the amountavailable to offer services to the community. However, casinos areassociated with inequality in the distribution of income and jobloss, where about 13.0 % of casino clients face the risk of losingjobs each year. The use of literature review, which is based on datacollected by other researchers, denied Halifax the opportunity toassess the quality of the data used to arrive at the conclusions.However, the article is a useful source that provides rareinformation on both the cost and the economic benefits of casinos.

Stolarick,S. and Brydges, T. Theeconomic impact of a downtown casino in Toronto.Toronto: Martin Prosperity Institute, 2013. Print.

Theauthors who are research directors at the Martin Prosperity Institutediscussed the economic impact of casinos in the downtown region ofToronto and the neighborhood. The authors develop their arguments byreviewing literature of the articles of the previous studies on theeconomic impacts of these casinos. The study identified that casinosmake a significant economic contribution by providing employmentopportunities to the aboriginals, which feel discriminated against inthe mainstream economic sectors and attract investments in regionswith casinos. For example, the authors identified that casinoemployees earn an average of $ 25,000 annually, which is reasonablegiven the difficulties that the indigenous people go through whenlooking for jobs. The use of literature review implies that thearticle could contain an accumulation of limitation and faults inother research articles, which reduces the reliability of thearticle. However, the article is a useful source that informs muchabout the contribution of casinos in job creation for indigenouspeople.

Williams,J., West, L. and Simpson, I. Preventionof problems or pathological gambling: A comprehensive Review of theEvidence.Ontario: Ontario Gambling Research Center.

Theauthors, who are professors at university of Lethbridge, discuss therelationship between casinos and the prevalence of the pathologicalchallenge that results from gambling. The authors target gamblingbecause it is the most common type of game that is played in casinos.The authors develop their arguments by reviewing the previous studiesand including their opinion as experts. One of the studies reviewedby the authors indicated that 75 % of the participants hadexperienced at least one case of a pathological gambler, whichindicates that the psychological effect and addiction of gambling isa common challenge that can be attributed to the large number ofcasinos. The inclusion of the opinion of experts implies that theconclusions could be biased while the review of literature limitedthe author’s capacity to assess the quality of the data used.However, the article is a reliable source that informs about thenegative impacts (such addiction) of casinos, which limit thecapacity of gamblers capacity to engage in economic activities.

Newhouse,D. “The challenge of aboriginal economic development in the shadowof the Borg”. TheJournal of Aboriginal Economic Development4.1 (2004): 34-42. Print.

Newhouseaddressed the economic challenges that the aboriginal community goesthrough and reasons why the government interventions have failed toaddress these economic issues. Newhouse argued that the state hasbeen involved in finding solutions to the economic challenges thatthe aboriginal people face, but failing to involve the aboriginals ina dialogue results in the formulation of ineffective economicdevelopment strategies. Newhouse drives the argument by citing otherauthors and providing personal opinions. The author states that theaboriginal people are still experiencing inequality housing, lowincome, and less participation in the labor force. The inclusion ofpersonal opinion in the article implies that the conclusions made bythe author could be biased, thus reducing the credibility of thearticle. However, the article is a useful resource that informs aboutthe need for inviting the aboriginal people to dialogue in order todevelop indigenous solutions to their economic challenges.

Newhouse,D. “Modern aboriginal economies: Capitalism with a red face”. TheJournal of Aboriginal Economic Development1.2 (2000): 55-61.

Newhouse,an associate professor at Trent University, discussed the gradualchanges that the aboriginal community has been adopting with time.Newhouse argues that the aboriginal community is gradually adoptingthe true meaning of the concept of capitalism, which is based on theidea of social progress and not greedy for money. Newhouse drives theargument by citing other articles and including personal opinions aswell as observations. Newhouse states that the fact that hadestablished about 14,000 new businesses by 1997, with most of thembeing formed within a decade suggests that they are adopting thewestern way of doing things. The inclusion of personal opinionindicates that the article could be biased, thus limiting itsreliability. However, the article is still a useful source because itexplains how the modernization of the aboriginal community ischanging their lives.

Workscited

Belanger,D., Williams, J., and Arthur, N. “Casinos and economic well-being:Evaluating the Alberta first nations’ experience”. TheJournal of Gambling Business and Economics5.1 (2011): 23-46. Web.&lthttp://www.academia.edu/1098059/_Casinos_and_Economic_Well-Being_Evaluating_the_Alberta_First_Nations_Experience._&gt

Belanger,D., Williams, J. and Arthur, N. “Assessing the impact of theintroduction of casinos in two Northern Alberta first nationcommunities”. AmericanReview of Canadian Studies42.1 (2012): 1-19, Web.

Belenger,Y. FirstNations gaming in Canada.Manitoba: University of Manitoba Press, 2011. Web.

Currie,L., Wild, T., Schopflocher, P., Laing, L., Veugelers, P. and Parlee,B. “Racial discrimination, post traumatic stress, and gablingproblems among urban aboriginal adults in Canada”. Journalof Gambling Studies1 (2012): 1-25. Print.

Hayward,K. Thecosts and benefits of gaming: A literature review with emphasis onNova Scotia.Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Gaming Foundation, 2004. Print.

Newhouse,D. “Modern aboriginal economies: Capitalism with a red face”. TheJournal of Aboriginal Economic Development1.2 (2000): 55-61.

Newhouse,D. “The challenge of aboriginal economic development in the shadowof the Borg”. TheJournal of Aboriginal Economic Development4.1 (2004): 34-42. Print.

StaticsCanada. The aboriginal general governments sector in the Canadianeconomic accounts. StatisticsCanada.2016. Web. 12 March 2016.

Stolarick,S. and Brydges, T. Theeconomic impact of a downtown casino in Toronto.Toronto: Martin Prosperity Institute, 2013. Print.

Williams,J., West, L. and Simpson, I. Preventionof problems or pathological gambling: A comprehensive Review of theEvidence.Ontario: Ontario Gambling Research Center.