Little effort has been made towards theintegration of the findings on switching of languages amongmulti-linguals into beneficial theory despite the broad research thathas been made. Further, there are several settings of multi-lingualsin which code or language switching have not been studied. Forinstance, similarity between the practice of switching languages andthat of switching codes or register is yet to be explored though thebehaviors seem to be equivalent regarding functionality. In otherwords, code and language switching as communicative strategies areyet to find their place in the intercultural communication theory andresearch. This essay will, therefore, try to undertake such kind ofintegration through undertaking a synthesis of some of the studiesthat have been attempted thus far towards making language switchingpart of several multiethnic or multilingual settings than it has beenrealized in the past. There will be synthesizing of the findings intosome focused theory which is viable which has been noticed by severalresearchers as having a lack of the intercultural communicationtheory(Lyu, and Ren-Yuan484). Moreover, comparisons between thesefindings shall be made, and their strengths and weaknessesestablished so as come up with a definite position of languageswitching in the various multi-linguals or multiethnic settings.
The choice of language involves theidentification of an individual who contains a social role and statusthat is relative to the status of the interlocutor. As amisidentification the choice of language is important.Curzansays, “For those teaching at universities where an undergraduatelinguistics course is required, we should seize the opportunity tohelp students understand how fundamental linguistics is to teachingEnglish language arts.” In writing and arguments languageinnovation cannot be suitably engendered through teaching wordplaywhich id creative, this just happens on its own(Curzan 115). The maincritics of teaching should clearly point out that some of theinnovators who include Shakespeare lacked the encouragement ofteachers and other people among the multi-linguals and themulti-cultural and their innovations have greatly influenced how wetalk and argue for many years. Some authors fail to acknowledge thekind of support which Shakespeare and the innovators received(Themistocleous 284). When arguing the works of Shakespeare may beseen to be politically rebellious since they lacked support from thepower halls and they had a popular claim. Shakespeare became free towrite plays which led to lesser-known infamy for writers. The supportof the establishment necessarily did not affect the creativity thoughhe did not take into consideration the impact of the multi-lingualsand the multi-cultural.
The choice of language involves theidentification of an individual who contains a social role and statusthat is relative to the status of the interlocutor. Accordingto Jeff Zorn, students have rights to their own language. He says, “Ilearned English teaching under the guidance of a woman who was anAfrican American” he argues“ the study of the right of thestudents’ to own language is a resolution affirmation of thelegitimacy of the dialect which this is not the real understandingsince the students should acquire language skills and it should notbe necessarily an affirmation by the legitimacy of dialect from theEnglish Teachers National Council.” (Zorn 317). The right of thestudents to own language is the official statement of the collegecompositionists regarding the dialect difference. The Culturaldifference should highly consider when teaching language and respectshould be maintained among other cultures and difference among thelearners and the teachers should be observed. As a misidentificationthe choice of language is important. In writing and argumentslanguage innovation cannot be suitably engendered through teachingwordplay which id creative, this just happens on its own. The maincritics of teaching should clearly point out that some of theinnovators who include Shakespeare lacked the encouragement ofteachers and other people among the multi-linguals and themulti-cultural and their innovations have greatly influenced how wetalk and argue for many years. Some authors fail to acknowledge thekind of support which Shakespeare and the innovators received(Themistocleous 284). Thermistocleous says “you cannot mix anydialects at work for easy understanding”. When arguing the worksof Shakespeare may be seen to be politically rebellious since theylacked support from the power halls and they had a popular claim.Shakespeare became free to write plays which led to lesser-knowninfamy for writers. The support of the establishment necessarily didnot affect the creativity though he did not take into considerationthe impact of the multi-linguals and the multi-cultural.
The language is true to the standard language.The language facilitating the growth and development shouldhave been developed from the culture of the user and it should beethical to other cultures in order to facilitate communication andethical values among the users. In contrast Young talks of theteaching in colleges arguing that there exist only one system ofspeaking and writing and that these ways of writing and speaking arevery to enable the multi- cultural and the multi-linguals to go aheadin life as far as the use of language is involved. He says “theteachers who write should clearly mind of the different orthodoxieswhich have been taken into a hold in the world of composition.” Hebelieves that children and students have the right to own a languageonly if the language is capable of building and developing them(Young 115). He argues “language serves as a device which protectsthe status quo but in real sense language is not the main reason towhy teaching is done to students.”“The best option is to viewpeople multi-linguals and we expand our perspectives concerning goodwriting and good language and accept language diversity hence workingtowards the expansion of language and writing”. Ann Amicucci says“while texting one has to slung words and has to lingo in order totalk better and understand what is being talked about. In examiningstudents’ literacy practices outside school, many scholars haveobtained a more nuanced understanding of students’ overallliteracies, including those occurring in academic settings”. Annlays much emphasize on the importance of showing students and theteachers in the program of education the introductory linguisticactivities (Amicucci 489). But language is not about the introductionor the beginning of speeches and writings it is the overflow of ideasand the understanding of ideas by the people from different cultures.Ann Amacussi argues that in every introductory course there existsthe power to counter the linguistic positioning which is marginalizedin the education process through showing the students the importanceof linguistics in the process of teaching English and by making themaware that language should cater for the given culture (Amicucci486). According to Ann Amucussi “the digital literacies fieldresearch is living and contains the ideas for the use of collegestudents’ digital literacy practices which are non-academic in thewriting classroom.” In assessing this it is not possible for anywriting to b non-academic since every aspect in writing builds thestudent and the learner thus instilling knowledge about literacyskills which are applicable in and outside the classroom.
From the discussion, a major theme can bederived that nature of the boundary between speech communities,influences which the members of the said communities are likely togain access to the types of background knowledge and linguisticresources, make code switching meaningful and accessible to them as asocial and communicative strategy. Moreover, the use of codeswitching which they make together with other language contactphenomena is a social and communicative goals that can be attained bycode-switching (Zorn, 322 ). Finally, there can be developed anexploration of the generalizing aspect of the findings on the socialconditions upon which code-switching may or may not be found. Thepossibility may be taken as code switching to be a representation ofone of the several ways in which communicative resources can beutilized to the same ends in the same cultural situations.
At another level, an approach which iscontext-embedded can result in an analysis on the mannerisms on whichcode-switching can develop as a communicative resource for theaccomplishment of communicative tasks in social interactions that arespecific. is a representation of the ability ofan individual towards the creative exploitation of conventionalassociations between language patterns use and social activities.Through the violation of conventions, code switching forcesinterlocutors to start questioning the expectations and assumptionsthey make, but because the violation is patterned, it focuses on theissue of taken-for-granted context that has a great need forreinterpretation (Curzan 112). There is a need for future research toexamine the existing relationship between code-switching and othercommunicative strategies forms that serve in the re-definition of thereference frames, explicitly or implicitly. Also, there is to make anexamination of the ways individuals learn to deduce from theircommunicative resources and the other background forms of knowledgefor the creation of meaning.
“Through the examination of the position ofcode switching in the respective verbal repertoires, and theemergence, disappearance or development it has over time, thereshould be a possibility of the exploration of the relationships ithas with other communicative resources forms and to referencechanging frames”. The relationship between code-switchingand other communicative resources kinds, majorly other languagephenomena forms, is important, due to its provision of individualswith a glimpse of the several communicative resources available tospeakers (Zorn, 322 ). The same as to the ways through which theresources can be utilized in the communicative strategies creation.
The development of code-switching patterns withtime as also important as a starting point for the examination of theways through which communicative forms are embedded in the dynamiccultural conditions. Therefore, thereremains a big deal to be discovered as far as the position of theintercultural communicative strategies is concerned, which on theother hand contribute towards the development of modified or newstrategies.
Amicucci, Ann N. "How they really talk." Journal ofAdolescent & Adult Literacy 57.6 (2014): 483-491.
Curzan, Anne. "Linguistics matters: Resistance and relevance inteacher education." Language 89.1 (2013): e1-e10.
Lyu, Dau-Cheng, and Ren-Yuan Lyu. "Language identification oncode-switching utterances using multiple cues." INTERSPEECH.2008.
Themistocleous, Christiana. "Digital code-switching betweenCypriot and Standard Greek: Performance and identity play online."International Journal of Bilingualism 19.3 (2015): 282-297.
Young, Vershawn Ashanti. "Should Writers Use They Own English?."Iowa Journal of Cultural Studies 12.1 (2010): 110-117.
Zorn, Jeff. "“Students’ Right to Their Own Language”: ACounter-Argument." Academic Questions 23.3 (2010):311-326.