Correlation and Causality

Correlationand Causality

Correlationand Causality

The problems are identified from the text Concepts and Application onpage 254. The correlation of between variables does not mean thatthey there is a causality effect between them (Cohen et al., 2013).


Guns and crimerate

The variables are guns and the rate of crime. There is no correlationbetween the two variables. The explanation for the same lies on thefact that the fact that the people own the guns are the ones carryingout the crime. It could be that that the people committing the crimesmay not be registered to have such firearms disqualifying thepresence of correlation.


Running andweight

The variables presented are the weight of an individual and running.Yes, there is a correlation between the two variables. Thecorrelation is negative. An explanation of the same is that the moretimes when exercises by running, the higher the chance of themburning the calories in them. Eventually, they will lose weight. Longdistance runners weigh less because of some calories burnt comparedto the short distance runners.


Study time

The two variables are time spent in reading and test scores. There isno correlation between the two concepts. In explaining the same, testscores are dependent on one’s capability to grasp the content.Students could spend more time studying but fail to pass because theydid not understand the content. For the same reason, it disqualifiesthe presence of any correlation.


Vehicles andwaiting time

The two variables are the number of vehicles and the time spent intraffic.

There is acorrelation between the two variables. The correlation is positivesuch that with the high number of registered vehicles, there would bean increase in vehicles in traffic meaning that the drivers wouldhave to spend more time in traffic. It is because of the increase intraffic.


Traffic Lightsand Car crashes

The variables presented are the presence of traffic lights and a carcrashes. The correlation presented is positive. It is because, withthe high number of traffic lights, there is bound to be confusionespecially for some of the motorists. The situation is made worse bythe failure of the traffic lights to operate efficiently. The effectof the same is translated to car crashes especially with the increasein traffic lights.



The variables are galaxies and the distance from us. There is nocorrelation between the two variables. It is vital to consider thatthe galaxies do not move as it is perceived. Rather, what isexperienced is the change in the gravitational force that makes thegalaxies appear as if they are moving when in real sense they arenot. For the same reason, no correlation is evident.


Gas anddriving

The two variables presented are the cost of gas and the distancevehicles are driven.

There is acorrelation between the two. The correlation is negative such that anincrease in the price of gas, it would mean that a small amount of itis available for the vehicles resulting in a shorter distance beingtraveled by the vehicles. If gas is expensive, vehicles will havelittle of it since people cannot afford. If a small amount of gas isavailable for the vehicles, the distance traveled would also beshort.


Melanoma andlatitude

The variables stated are a level of latitude and incidence ofmelanoma. There is a negative correlation. It is because people fromlow latitude regions experience dry and sunny seasons increasingchances of the skin developing melanoma.


Cohen, J., Cohen,P., West, S. G., &amp Aiken, L. S. (2013). Applied multipleregression/correlation

analysis for thebehavioral sciences. Routledge.