Criticalanalysis of quantitative research
Criticalanalysis of quantitative research
Inthe paper, QuantitativeStudy of Teacher Perceptions of Professional Learning Communities`Context, Process, and Content,uses a quantitative research method in the study of how the teacherperceives their professors. The method is applied to gather data andanalyze it for the answering of research questions and development ofa proper conclusion to the study problem. The study was conducted inthirty-three schools to establish the level of influence of ProgramLogic Controllers. The study used the quasi-experimental design forthe collection of data from the participating subjects. Randomselection of the sample was used in obtaining the sample for theresearch and this, as stated by the author, was the best method forthe collection of the appropriate data required for the research. Hejustifies this by saying that through random selection, the resultsobtained were free of any form of bias, which is true for such amethod.
Thestudy was purposed on researching on impacts of Professional LearningCommunities as alleged by the New Jersey State qualified educators inthree categories. The sets are content, procedure, and framework ofthe implementation of reforms (Johnson, 2011). The researcher usesthe Standards Inventory Assessment for the evaluation of teachers’views as mentioned randomly throughout the survey instrument. Thestudy is aimed at provision of data to the prop er levels of thegovernment such as the district levels which are willing to put intopractice the PLC format concerning its efficacy as viewed by thetutors using the same model.
Datafor the research was congregated by means of the Standards InventoryAssessment survey instrument. The collected information wasdistributed to the individual schools that consented to the use oftheir data in the research. The analysis was done using statisticalmethods which were then refined for the determination o0f theProfessional Learning Community model.
Critiqueof the research paper
Thestudy involved different groups, and the participants were randomlyassigned to the groups. The author justified this as the perfectmethod for collection of data which is free of any form of bias. Theparticipants are measured over time to evaluate the effectiveness ofthe methods. With this, the author justifies as the most appropriateway of ensuring that the results obtained from the diverse sourcesare compatible with each other and that they meet the criteria of theresearch. The data collected was evaluated after a certain period atdifferent intervals. For this particular study where a large amountof data was obtained, such format of data collection is essential toensuring g that the correct amount of data is obtained and that thisis done effectively (Creswell, 2011). The research does not employblinded participants in the group, and all the members are aware ofthe group they belong and the role they have to play in thegeneration of adequate data for the research.
Thestudy is prospective, and all the data is obtained prospectively. Theresearch only employs controls prospectively, and no historicalcontrol is used for the study. The author implies that the use ofprospective methods in the collection and processing of data was anessential move necessary for the collection of current informationthat will be helpful to both the government and the institutions thatapply the method in their curricular (Johnson, 2011).
Theeffects of external validity of choice, equivalence, andparticipation of the subjects are clearly mentioned and elaborated inthe study and give an implication of how the external factors affectthe results of the study. The sample of the study was randomlypicked. The author states that the method was effective in ensuringthat the data which will be obtained is free of bias of any for andthat it satisfactorily meets the criteria of the study in finding theacuities of the teachers as they shifted to a expert learningcommunity model. Data tracking methods were employed in the effort tomeeting the accountability standards of the research.
Suchis essential for any form of quantitative research design, especiallywhere a large and diverse sample is used. It is also valid for thequasi-experimental design employed in the research. Ten schools fromdifferent parts of New Jersey were utilized in the study. This is alarge group and given the fact that the samples are dispersed over avast area a more practical and resourceful data is obtained.
Inthe methodology, the study employs both inclusion and exclusioncriteria for the selection of the sample to be used for the study.The research from nationwide known, peer-reviewed connoisseurs wasencompassed in the research. The author of the paper justifies thatthe literature was essential in placing the PLC modification model inthe suitable historic setting. The exclusion criteria included thoseschools that did not obtain permission from their respectivedistricts. A historical context was applied for the demonstration ofa tiered structure of ideas within recent efforts and the methods inwhich the different ideas could be incorporated into the PLC model(Muijis, 2012).
Thestudy employs ten schools across different districts for thegeneration of data. The sample size calculation is however notincluded thus no justification using statistical calculations. Hislack of inclusion of the calculations for the determination of samplesize does not give an accountability of the sample used (Flynn,2011). These fails in providing the analysts the picture of how thesample was arrived at and the criteria for choosing the size used.The author had however planned to use thirty-three schools for thestudy, but twenty-three failed to respond to the letters. The aimedsample size would be more efficient in the generation of appropriatedata, but he goes ahead to use the schools that complied. This raisesquestions about the eligibility of the results given the fact thatthe intended sample size was not met. The information provided on thesample includes the sample size which the author argues that evenwith the failure to achieve the desired size, the available one waseligible for the provision of essential information on the studiedtopic and generated results that answered the questions raised by theresearch.
Thestudy fails to give a clear picture of the number and thecharacteristics of the subjects in the research. With the failure ofprovision of such information, the researcher acts in aninappropriate manner as the results obtained cannot be accounted(Muijs, 2012). The characteristics of a given sample may explain thefindings of the study. The study only elaborates on the number ofschools that consented to the participation in the study but fails togive the definite number of the teachers or any other eligible memberof the school who qualified for the provision of informationregarding PLC. It also mentions of the other schools that failed totake part in the study. For such, the author provides an assumptionthat the twenty-three schools that failed to participate in the studycould have been denied permission for participation in theirrespective districts. Such a failure in participation for the studycould have a significant impact on the anticipated results of anystudy. However, then the group that compiled serves as an essentialsource of the data and provides the required quantity of data for thesolution of the research questions and in meeting the objectives ofthe research. The compliant group, however, becomes active in theprovision of data that is utilized for the generation of results anddevelopment of a conclusion to meet the questions of the study. Thesample used is valid for the research quantitative design employed inthe study and meet the needs for the provision of data which isessential for the generation of appropriate data for the study
Thesample chosen for this particular study is loyal as revealed by theirparticipation. The groups of subjects that consented to theinvolvement in the study show compliance to the end of the study. Thewhole group willingly participated in the study to the end leading tothe generation of the most efficient data for the study. Theparticipants had an experience of one to twenty plus years of theteaching career (Johnson, 2011). The schools within the groups werein diverse locations such as the urban, suburban and the ruralsettings. The use of such is essential for the stratification of therandom sampling process and in ensuring that there is a properrepresentation of population subgroups in the study.
Theresearch also included a validity for the SAI instrument used in thestudy. The researcher uses content validity through an expert review,and the findings of the survey provide for the addition of moredemographic information about the research. The use of the sample isjustified by information from previous researches with a similarscope. The sample used is, therefore, worthy of meeting the resultsas evident from the study (Creswell, 2012). The study also providesthat there was no reported drop-out during the research process andthat all the participants were compliant to all the processes andwere willing in the provision of information during the study period.The study, however, fails to outline the number of times observationsfrom the measurement of eligibility of the participants were made.The effects of the time taken on the view are not described in theresearch paper.
Theresearch employed Standards Inventory Assessment (SAI) for thecollection of data, and this was automated with the employment of asecret code used in logging in so as to ensure privacy andconfidentiality in the study process (Boudand Falchinov, 2014).The instrumentation section of the study addresses the validity ofthe survey instrument employed in research and also justifies theimportance and significance of the choice made for the use of themethod of collection of the required data. Confidentiality is corein the generation of data and in protecting the privacy of theparticipant thus ensuring an ethical standard in the process.
Inthe study QuantitativeStudy of Teacher Perceptions of Professional Learning Communities`Context, Process, and Content, theresearcher uses quantitative design in the generation of results(Muijis, 2012). He supports the decision for choosing this model ashe suggests that it is the most suitable for answering the researchquestions developed prior to the study. The study also employed aquasi-experimental design in the generation of data from the sample.The sample employed meets the requirement in successfully providingdata for the research. The researcher, however, fails to account onhow he arrived at the choice for the number to be included in thestudy. The study does not include the calculations on how the numberwas arrived at and this raises questions about its credibility.
Thegroups of subjects that consented to the participation in the studyshow acquiescence to the end of the study and become helpful in thegeneration of data, therefore, indicating a proper choice of sample.The whole group willingly participated in the study to the endleading to the generation of the most efficient data for the study.The participants had an experience of one to twenty plus years of theteaching career which is a suitable level of expertise in theprovision of the teachers’ perceptions of professional learningcommunities. A group of thirty-three schools failed to comply withthe study. Such a failure in participation for the study could have asignificant impact on the anticipated results of any quantitativestudy. However, the group that complied serves as an essential sourceof the data and provides the required quantity of data for thesolution of the research questions and in meeting the objectives ofthe study.
Creswell,J. W. (2011). Researchdesign: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches.Los Angeles: Sage.
Flynn,E. W., & F., L. F. (2012). Designsin affective education: A teacher resource program for junior andsenior high.New York: Paulist Press.
Johnson,D. R. (2011). Aquantitative study of teacher perceptions of professional learningcommunities` context, process and content.South Orange, NJ: Seton Hall University.
Muijs,D. (2012). Doingquantitative research in education with SPSS.London: Sage Publications.
Boud,D., & Falchikov, N. (2014). Quantitative studies of studentself-assessment in higher education: A critical analysis of findings.Highereducation,18(5),529-549.
Mugenda,O. M. (2010). Researchmethods: Quantitative and qualitative approaches.African Centre for Technology Studies.