Cross-Cultural Negotiations


Nameof Student

Goalsfor the training program

Themain objectives of the training program are:

  • To examine negotiation power at the international level.

  • To facilitate the understanding of culture by those in attendance.

  • To promote peaceful proceedings in international forums and businesses.

  • To suggest and reveal new ways of peaceful international deals.

  • To teach about equality and a sense of acceptance for all cultural settings.

  • To enlighten those in attendance about the various strategies of communication and advocate for better negotiations.

  • To investigate the various problems that arise during inter-ethnic negotiations and provide solutions to enhance better relations and understanding at the international level.

SESSIONONE (Introduction to cross-cultural psychology)


Themain question of interest in this study is how problems that arisedue to culture at international negotiation forums can be dealt with.The probable answer seeks to explain whether those in attendance canalter whatever attitudes they have about inter racial interactions.Throughout the program, the courses involved aim at achieving thespecific goal of the paper mentioned.


Thisprogram targets international business people as it is ofinter-ethnic importance. Government officials and ambassadors arealso a target of the information in this training program. The mainreason for singling out these groups of people is that they representdifferent nations at different international forums that involvemultiple ethnicities. To ensure a peaceful coexistence and harmony,such representatives need to present themselves in a way that showsrespect and acceptance for other cultures and themselves as well.This will help curb any chances of inter-state disagreements andconflicts (Gulliver, 2009).

Listof abstracts


Allnegotiations are conducted in socio-cultural environments whichgreatly influences the behaviors of negotiators, their actions, andperceptions both verbally and non-verbally. To negotiate with peoplefrom different cultures showing appreciation to cultural attitudesand expectations is key and giving responses that are suitable wherenecessary. (Griffith and Ryans, 2007)

Inthe business world today, frontiers have been extended far beyonddomestic confines. Where global business is concerned, negotiationacross cultures becomes a popular research concept. The main reasonfor this is that, the parties involved in the negotiations areusually from various countries, having different beliefs and culturalvalues which they come with to the table where negotiations takeplace. There is a big difference observed in how people communicate,think or even behave when negotiations take place, and this differswith culture. This paper examines the inter-cultural issue thatarises during negotiations and brings suggestions forth to help dealwith the problem in business negotiations that involve manycountries. What the conclusion arrived at is that, those people whonegotiate at the international level are supposed to be aware of notonly the basics of negotiation but also how one`s culture has a handin influencing the agreement and the behavior of the negotiator.(Griffith and Ryans, 2007) A more successful outcome is observed whennegotiators understand, accept and respect the cultural beliefs andvalues of other parties.


Psychologistswho study cross culture give information that can be made part ofundergraduate courses. Methodological problems that arise due tointer-ethnic interactions are evaluated in depth giving differentmeanings of various notions, bias while carrying out research andtranslation. There is also a study that highlights the contextswithin which behaviors occur. There is a review of how the study ofcognition, interpersonal interaction, perception, group dynamics, andmotivation are contributed upon by the contributions.


Thetext can be used by those who have trained in psychology prior. Basicdomains of psychology covered include cognition, development of humanbeings, and perception. Some of the issues of concern to those whoare specialized in social psychology include sex and gender,intergroup relations, and aggression. Modernization is also lookedinto as it has various implications on culture. There are also manyother theoretical approaches unique to psychology that involvesdifferent ethnicities.


Thereare limitations and remedies of social psychology. The remediesinvolve paying more attention to inter-cultural studies. Disciplinessuch as intelligence, conformity, self, control and well-being arebound to culture. The author expresses methodologies that can begiven a simultaneous consideration in defining the attributes ofparticipants, actor and target attribute inclusive of their culture.The relationships and attributes of both the target and the actor arehighly examined.

Thementioned abstracts form a foundation of my research since they givea general overview of what cross-cultural psychology is and themethodologies are used to build on the target question on how tohandle inter-cultural negotiations.


Whatis inter-cultural philosophy?

Explainthe relevance of inter-cultural philosophy in internationalnegotiations.

SESSIONTWO (A look into culture and business)

Negotiationis the means employed during conflict resolution where two parties ormore try to resolve an argument in a manner that involves agreement.When the product markets are globalized, in a place where businesstransactions are growing in number, and they involve customers whoare foreign, suppliers or ventures that are done jointly,negotiations that are cross-cultural occur on a daily basis in thewhole world. In such settings, there are likelihoods ofmisunderstandings arising from communication. A successfulnegotiation requires that parties have a perfect understanding of thebusiness in question as well as a grasp of the economic and culturalbackground of one another. This kind of negotiation that involvesdifferent cultures does not only mean arriving at a consensus ormaximizing on the social stature of a person. It is about respectingthe norms of the partners involved in the negotiation which resultsin an establishment of a relationship that is not only cordial butalso long term for the sake of business.

Thispaper provides a critical examination of what effects culture has onnegotiations at the international negotiations for business. Theimportance is that the parties may understand fully the facts behindthe business, but there are factors like spoken words or actionsdisplayed that may be of adverse effect to the negotiations outcome.It is relevant at this stage to state that this particular researchprovides no guidance on means of negotiation with members ofdifferent cultural backgrounds on a state by state basis.Nevertheless, it focuses on the skills that are necessary foreffective global negotiation. This helps to avoid the most speculatedstereotypes and also because generalization of individuals of aparticular country may be false because people can live within thesame country and have unique characteristics.

Thispaper is important because it covers a wide range of issues relatedto inter-cultural negotiation as a problem that can affectinternational relations if not handled with care. By the end of thetraining program, the learner should be able to have a generaloverview of negotiation, have a full understanding of whatcross-culture psychology is and all the dimensions of culture thathave an influence on processes of negotiation. The learner shouldalso be equipped with ideal strategies that deal with the problemsthat arise due to cultural negotiations (Bond, 2013).


Kremenyuk,V. A. (2011). International Negotiation: Analysis, Approaches, Issues(pp. 343-365). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Thetext explores the issue of negotiation at the international level andhow to approach any issues that are bound to arise.

Druckman,D. (2008). Human Factors in International Negotiations: A Survey ofResearch on Social-psychological Aspects of International Conflict.Schweppe Research and Education Fund, Academy for EducationalDevelopment.

Thistext is used in this text because it shows direct relations thatexist between culture and international negotiations. It is acomprehensive study research that is relevant to the trainingprogram.

Tse,D. K., Lee, K. H., Vertinsky, I., &amp Wehrung, D. A. (1988). Doesculture matter? A cross-cultural study of executives` choice,decisiveness, and risk adjustment in international marketing. TheJournal of Marketing, 81-95.

Thisis mainly about businesses that occur across borders. Harmony and agood association are important in such transactions. This text provesthat culture is important when conducting such negotiations.


Whatis culture?

Howdoes culture relate to business?

Whatis an appreciation of culture?

SESSIONTHREE (Negotiation)


Hardversus soft negotiation styles

Inthe hard style, the person negotiating views the state of affairs asa contest whereby the final triumph goes to the side that assumes theposition that is most rigid. The soft style emphasizes on buildingthe best relationships and sustaining them. It is the most efficientstyle but can also be fatal as the hard negotiator dominates over thesoft negotiator.

Goodcop v Bad cop

Thisstrategy requires one party to adopt the role of a hard negotiatorand the other the soft strategy to act like the other party. Themembers here need to comprehend the range of their bargaining forthem to avoid negotiating at a loss as they try to outdo one another.


Oneparty in this strategy out rightly refuses to put discussions on thetable with the other party. The partner places his offer on the tableand expects the other to decide whether they will take it or not anddoes not will to make concessions.


Whatis negotiation?

Listsome of the negotiation strategies discussed

Whichis the most preferred strategy of negotiation?

SESSIONFOUR (Cross-cultural negotiations)

Factorsaffecting cross-cultural negotiation

Thereare various cultural dimensions such as Individualism VersusCollectivism, Monochromic or polychromic, indirect versus directcommunication and many more. These are the dimensions that affect theprocess of negotiation.


Thisrefers to the interests that are to be achieved. Having the drive toattain the goals has an effect on the behavior of parties. Those whocome from cultures that value individualism, tend to be directed bytheir interests and don`t care about whether the process ofnegotiation is good or bad as long as their aims are acquired.Collectivists are more sensitive to what others need and compare themto their goals to come to an agreement that favors both parties.


Thispoints to the power distance and the difference in people`sacceptance of authority. A Chief Executive Officer, for example, willexpect to face another CEO during negotiation an taking a lowerranked official may be considered an insult(Gulliver, 2009). Whennegotiations are being carried out, consent is required at differentlevels which are necessary to make sure that an agreement is arrivedat.


Timeis extremely valuable for monochromic cultures, and hence, they arepunctual and strict to their schedules. Lateness is considered aninsult. Polychromic cultures, on the other hand, consider the time tobe flexible and will at the first attempt to build relationships.Such cultures will think that the rushing parties are out to hidesomething while the monochromic party will want negotiations tofollow a chronological order.


Discussthe various cultural dimensions

SESSIONFIVE (Solutions to the inter cultural problem)

Dealingwith cross-cultural problems in business negotiations at theinternational level


Preparingincludes rehearsing and studying about the background of the otherparty. It is critical as it indicates the respect one has for theculture of the other party and, as a result, credibility and trustare built from the word go. Getting to understand nuisances andtaboos and keeping away from them makes the process of negotiationsmoother


Theyare common but lack a basis when it comes to reality. To negotiatesuccessfully, the parties need to get beyond cultural misconceptionsand stereotypes. When one makes assumptions, distrust will be builtand barriers that affect the parties` goals created.


Somesituations require that an agent who has more knowledge about thenorms of the other side and values is recruited. This could be bothadvantageous and disadvantageous. Where language is a barrier, aninterpreter is needed to facilitate comprehension and mutualunderstanding. (Bond, 2013)

Discoveringof new ways of bridging cultural gaps

Whenthis is done, the parties may use combined cultures to focus mostlyon the norms of a professional culture that is common. A studyconducted indicates that when at a table, differences in culturecause tension, negotiators who come from different cultures butbackgrounds similar by profession may depend on their values of theirprofessional culture while trying to make the gap between thecultures involved smaller. Etiquette is mandatory for a cross culturenegotiation as well. One should be relaxed and apologize if he doesor says something that is out of place he should be calm and able tocommunicate with a need to initiate dialogue. This will surelyguarantee effective communication between different cultures.


Discussother means on how to deal with inter-cultural negotiation problemsthat arise during international business negotiations.

SESSIONSIX (The Outcome)


Fromthe training program, the desired effect is to see peacefulproceedings that don`t involve any acts of disparity or superiorityover those considered weak. Negotiations should be fair, and everyperson`s cultural beliefs and values must be considered. Desirablestrategies should be used to negotiate, and those involved should tryto adopt means of dealing with inter-cultural negotiations withoutfail.


Thereare no rules of approaching a dispute. However, one should have amarked strategy when resolving a dispute based on an analysis carriedout by the parties, what goals they have and the current situation.In inter-cultural negotiation, one should make a point of applyingthe principled method of negotiation. In this method, people areseparated from their problems and focus put on their interestshelping the parties achieve their specific objectives quickly.


Wasthe training program worth it?

Whatare some factors that you can change about how negotiations are donecurrently?


Bond,M. H. (2013). How language variation affects inter-culturaldifferentiation of values by Hong Kong bilinguals. Journal ofLanguage and Social Psychology, 2(1), 57-66.

Drake,L. E. (2005). Negotiation styles in intercultural communication.International Journal of Conflict Management, 6(1), 72-90.

Ghauri,P. N. (2014). Guidelines for international business negotiations.International Marketing Review, 3(3), 72-82.

Griffith,D. A., Hu, M. Y., &amp Ryans Jr, J. K. (2007). Processstandardization across intra-and inter-cultural relationships.Journal of International Business Studies, 303-324.

Gulliver,P. H. (2009). Disputes and Negotiations: A cross-culturalperspective. New York: Academic Press.

Haas,P. M. (2012). Introduction: epistemic communities and internationalpolicy coordination. International Organization, 46(01), 1-35.

Hui,C. H., &amp Triandis, H. C. (2015). Measurement in cross-culturalpsychology a review and comparison of strategies. Journal ofcross-cultural psychology, 16(2), 131-152.

Leung,K., Bhagat, R. S., Buchan, N. R., Erez, M., &amp Gibson, C. B.(2005). Culture and international business: Recent advances and theirimplications for future research. Journal of International BusinessStudies, 357-378.

McCrae,R. R. (2007). Trait psychology and culture: Exploring interculturalcomparisons. Journal of Personality, 69(6), 819-846.

Segall,M. H., Lonner, W. J., &amp Berry, J. W. (2008). Cross-culturalpsychology as a scholarly discipline: On the flowering of culture inbehavioral research. American Psychologist, 53(10), 1101.

Tse,D. K., Francis, J., &amp Walls, J. (2009). Cultural differences inconducting intra-and inter-cultural negotiations: A Sino-Canadiancomparison. Journal of international business studies, 537-555.