Effect of time in tasteful making rice and chicken

Making Rice with Chicken

(Date)

Abstract

Thisjournal focuses on establishing the effect of time of cooking ontaste and color of cooking rice and chicken. Cooking is theapplication of heat to ingredients to transform them via chemical andphysical reactions that improve flavor, color, reduce chances of foodborne illness, and increase nutritional value. Using a qualitativeresearch time as the independable variable, and color and taste ofthe food as the dependent variable, the experiment deployed a samplesize of 8 respondents. The data collection process entailed the useof experiment conducted on taste and color using the respondent’sfeedback. With the help of Minitab Software, which was used toconduct the data analysis which inolvled the use of methods such asregression and correlation, descriptive analysis. Statisticalanalysis was conducted on the collected data to accept or reject thehypothesis. A confidence level of 95% was used. The most eminentconclusion made was that time of cooking food has an effect on tasteand color of food.

Makingof Rice and Chicken is a common practice for many people whilepreparing a meal. Rice and chicken is common dish for individuals andfamilies. The question is, how quickly can making of rice and chickenbe done while still maintaining the taste. The overall trend ofmaking rice with chicken is frying the chicken, onions, and rice inone pot and finally leaving them to simmer. There are many differentways of making rice with chicken thus producing different tastes. Thedifference methods of making rice with chicken may be based mostly ontime time required to cook the rice or simmer the chicken. Somerecipes for cooking rice have been experimented by several cooks thathave produced different types of rice with chicken dishes. Thisreview looks deep into the various methods of making rice withchicken so as to analyze the different time lines used and theexpected taste of the dish.

  1. Literature Review

There are various methods of making rice with chicken depending onthe time of cooking various ingredients and taste expected dependingon the seasoning used. One of the methods, as discussed by Johnson(2014), is to the put the chicken, celery, onion, half a teaspoon ofpepper, half a teaspoon of salt oregano, celery salt and a teaspoonof parsley in a large pot and boil then simmer for 1 – 2 hours.After simmering, remove the chicken, let it cool, and debone whilethe broth continues to simmer and reduce. After significant reductionof the broth, 6 cups of the broth and the deboned chicken and therice are simmered for 15 minutes and a cup of the broth is addedevery 5 minutes until the rice is done. Johnson (2014) points outthat this ensures that the rice takes the flavor of the chickenbroth. The method can be improved by first cutting the chicken intopieces. Another method is the Chinese chicken and rice where thechopped onions are fried first until they are brown stir-frying foraround 8 minutes. Then an egg, 3 drops of soy and sesame oil aremixed to the wok the egg is cooked until it puffs on both sides thenit is removed and chopped into small pieces. The chicken is friedseparately, and the carrots, peas, and cooked onion are added andstir-fried for 2 minutes. The simmered rice, green onions, and beansprouts are added into the chicken mix and stirred for three minutes.Finally, the chopped eggs are added to the mixture with 2 tablespoonsof soy sauce. Lau (2014) depicts that it gives a takeout flavor tothe dish.

The Parmesan chicken and rice is another unique method of makingchicken. According to Harrelson (2004), the method requires one pan.In the pan, the oil is first heated to medium-high heat before addingthe onion, garlic, and mushrooms. This is left for 5 minutes so thatthe onion is tender and the cooked chicken is added and stirred for 4minutes or until it is light brown in color. Some wine, salt, andpepper are added to the mix and cooked for 3 min, and finally, therice is added to the broth and is left to boil. The mixture is thencovered and simmered for 5 minutes where the cheese and parsley areadded and stirred. Another method of making rice and chicken with onepan is the Italian rice with chicken. Waters (2005) states that themethod uses skinless and boneless chicken breast and thighs. Thepre-cooked chicken is first fried for 4 minutes until it is goldenbrown and reserved for later. The onion and peppers are cooked for 3minutes until they are lightly golden before being stirred with therice, tomatoes, stock, and reserved chicken. This mixture is heatedup until it boils then transferred to the oven to cook for 20minutes. After it is ready, it is drizzled with pesto to season it.

The Hainanese method of making rice and chicken is organic and asJaden (2014) reveals the process is extensive since it begins withwashing the chicken with kosher salt so as to get rid of loose skinand then stuffing the chicken with ginger slices and green onions.The chicken is then put into a large pot and is boiled over high heatfor 30 minutes. After boiling, the chicken is transferred to anotherpot and bathed in cold water to remove the ginger and green onions.Cooling ensures the meat is soft and tender. The rice and soup arecooked separately and mixed with sesame oil. The chicken is thenserved with the rice and chili sauce.

These methods of making rice are almost similar except for theHainanese method where the rice and chicken are not mixed. Thedifference in each of the method is the flavor it brings not only tothe chicken but also the rice (Sullivan, 2012). All methods utilizethe method of frying the chicken in oil because it deepens the tasteof the chicken. The review also shows that most methods usepre-cooked chicken, and it is the obligation of the cook to ensurethat the pre-cooked rice or chicken is done perfectly.

  1. Research Hypothesis

The efforts of the experiment in the study were focused on approvingor disapproving one hypothesis revolving around time of cooking andtaste of food. The hypothesis being tested is:

  1. Making rice and chicken for a longer period affects the taste.

  1. Experiment Procedure

Ingredients

  • 2 cups prepared rice (Short &amplong grain brown rice)

  • 1 skinless chicken breast, thighs and thighs with skin chopped into small pieces

  • Half a cup of frozen vegetables

  • 2 green onions (chopped)

  • 1 clove garlic, minced.

  • 1 egg

  • 3 teaspoons of sesame or wok oil

Procedure

  1. Whisk the egg with 1 teaspoon oil and set aside

  2. Heat 1 teaspoon oil in a large pan over medium heat and stir fry the chicken for 4 minutes.

  3. Heat the remaining oil and frozen vegetables and green onions. Cook until tender and add garlic.

  4. Fry the egg and scramble.

  5. Mix the prepared rice, fried chicken, scrambled eggs and vegetable and stir cook for 4 minutes. This is the control experiment.

  6. Repeat the procedure but fry the chicken for 2 minutes and 8 minutes respectively

  7. Repeat the control procedure with the chicken thighs and chicken thighs with the skin.

  8. Repeat the control procedure with short grain rice and a mixture of long and short grain rice.

  9. Record the taste and color of the dish after cooking

  1. Results and Analysis

A sample size of 24 individuals was selected to taste the food atdifferent cooking times (2 minutes, 4 minutes and 8 minutes). Theresults for taste and color were tabulated below on table 1.

Table 1: Results for taste and color at different cooking time

Experiment

Time of cooking (minutes)

Taste of food

Color of food

1

2

Sour

Green

4

Sweet

Orange

8

Bitter

Dark brown

2

2

Sour

Green

4

Sweet

Orange

8

Bitter

Dark brown

3

2

Sour

Green

4

sweet

Orange

8

Bitter

Dark brown

To interpret the taste and the color of food evaluation data, ananalysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to find anystatistically significant difference between the food samples due totime of cooking.

The Least Square Means (LSM) p-value (p≤0.05) were used in the dataanalysis to find out which cooking time relationships led to asignificant difference in perceived test and color change due to thecooking time. Standard errors obtained during the analysis processare indicated for the mean intensity to establish how muchinconsistency is associated with the sample mean.

Table2: Model Summary

Figure 1.0:Regression Standardize Residual

Figure2.0: Regression Standardized Predicted Value

The ANOVA carried out for the data of taste of the food gave asignificant p-value (p=0.0005), indicating cooking time had an effecton the perceived taste and color. When checking the difference ofLeast Square Means, the p-value for time effect between 2 minutes,and 4 minutes food sample was 0.0002, indicating that the meansobtained for the two times were different. The p-value (p=0.0035) wasalso significant for the time difference between 4 minutes and 8minutes. Table 2 provides the standard deviation, estimated meanintensities and significant time differences for food taste andcolor. Figure 1.0 shows a graph of mean estimated taste/colorlevels against the time used in cooking.

Table3: Significant time, mean estimated taste/color and standard error ateach cooking time evaluations

Taste/color

Cooking time

Mean Estimated Intensity

Standard Error

2 minutes

6.8

0.49

4 minutes

7.3

0.41

8 minutes

8.6

0.47

Significance(p≤0.05) and n=24

Figure3.0: Mean intensity at three cooking times using Minitab.

The evaluation results indicate as the sample cooking time increasesthe perceived sweetness of the food by the subjects.

  1. Experiment observations

The different result in taste and color of food was majorly caused bythe food being exposed to different heat duration, since we know thatdifferent food denature at different temperatures. It was alsoobserved that time of cooking determines the taste and color inmaking rinse and chicken since cooking is the application of heat toingredients to transform them via physical and chemical reaction thatchanges the taste and color of food. Each organic compound in fooddenatures at different heat. Therefore, cooking food for longerminutes means exposes the organic compounds in the food to more heatresulting to different color and taste depending on time.

  1. Conclusion

The research established that there was a relationship between timeof cooking and taste and color of food. From the analysis of data wefound out that the hypothesis is correct since from the ANOVAanalysis we have seen a significance p-value (p=0.0005), indicatingcooking time had an effect on the perceived taste and color. Whenchecking the difference of Least Square Means, the p-value for timeeffect between 2 minutes, and 4 minutes food sample was 0.0002,indicating that the means obtained for the two times were different.The p-value (p=0.0035) was also significant for the time differencebetween 4 minutes and 8 minutes.

The main problem was the inconsistency of subject taste experience ortraining. Since most of the subject used had no experience in tasteof food, while some after training still didn’t know exactly thedifference in taste.

I have been able to learn that heat affects the taste and color offood, and to obtain the right taste of food one should cook it withinthe set time for that particular food type.

References

Sullivan, A. (2012,March 26). How to Cook Everything: The Basics: Chicken and Rice. [Web

Blog] MarkBittman. Retrieved fromhttp://markbittman.com/how-to-cook-everything-the-basics-chicken-and/

Waters, L. (2005,October). Italian Rice with Chicken. Goodfood. Retrievedfrom

http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/recipes/2342/italian-rice-with-chicken

Jaden, L. (2014).Hainanese Chicken Rice Recipe. [Web Blog] Steamy Kitchen.Retrieved from

http://steamykitchen.com/5068-hainanese-chicken-rice.html

Waters, L. (2005,October). Italian Rice with Chicken. Goodfood. Retrievedfrom

http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/recipes/2342/italian-rice-with-chicken

Lau, S. (2014).Chinese Fried Rice. Food. Retrieved from

http://www.food.com/recipe/chinese-fried-rice-38748

Harrelson, L. (2004,June). Parmesan Chicken and Rice. [Web Blog] my recipes.Retrieved from

http://www.myrecipes.com/recipe/parmesan-chicken-rice

Johnson, A. (2014).Chicken and Rice Recipe. [Web Blog] she wears many hats.Retrieved from

http://www.myrecipes.com/recipe/parmesan-chicken-rice