Effects of Invasive Species


How Malaria Was Acquired In the New World

After a discovery of new world, globalization has to take place sothat new products can be acquired. For instance, trade is among themajor practices that have to be conducted so that a difference can benoted. The Europeans discovered the Pre-Columbian Americas, whenColumbus crossed Atlantic it signified that new age was going to bediscovered not only in the America but change would occur in Europe,Asia and in Africa. This is because it was an era when global tradewas discovered by Columbus and this meant that oceans that acted asbarriers to the traders was no longer a barrier. This is becausesupercontinent that was discovered 150 million years ago had reunitedwith the discovered continent like America, Asia and Africa amongothers. The paper seeks to analyze how the effects of invasivespecies lead to discovery of malaria in Europe.

The discovered new world needed source of labor and in Africa therewere slaves who were offered as cheap source of labor. Charles Manntakes us back in the discovery of the Post-Columbian globe (Greer andBilinkoff, 2003). Jamestown was a colony of British and currently itis referred to as Virginia State. The Americans were looking forsource of labor and Dutch pirate ship carrying black slaves wascaptured by the Portuguese. Based on the fact that Americans neededcheap source of labor they had that opportunity of buying the blackslaves and this resulted to major transformation where diseases suchas malaria got into the new world.

The purchase of the slaves caused the American a lot since thetobacco farmers were not aware that buying of cheap source of labormeant that they acquired disease that Africans had in their blood.The plasmodium falciparum according to the author was a parasite thatwas capable of transmitting malaria to the new world and this is howmalaria was experienced in North America. The Americans startedsuffering from malaria fever and they paid high prices due to theirexploitation and the Africans were resistance to malaria. Mann statesthat malaria made the white farmers to leave their mansions to breezyareas so that they could protect themselves from the disease wherethey left the black slaves to cultivate in the rich fertile fields. The trade that was referred to as “Columbian exchange involvedexchange of human being, animals and plants and it affected morecountries and it was not just Americans. This is because in 1570according to Mann Europeans appearance was noticed in Philippines andthus China was still affected.

During this period China did not have any interest in Europe sincethey believed that the Europe inhabitants did not have a lot to offerto the Chinese based on the fact that China was civilized. Duringthis time around 1570 it was noted that America had something thatthey could offer to China because china silver was electrified. Silver was a precious metal that was used as their currency and allthe transaction that were conducted had to use silver. The SouthAmericans who arrived in China had nothing else rather than money.Trade boomed and it extended up to Mexico since there was exchange ofgoods such as silk and porcelain among other goods that got their wayto Mexico. The black slaves were transferred in different parts ofcountry based on that the immerging new world were being discoveredand thus labor was needed. The white did not have strength tocultivate in the tobacco and cotton plantations and thus they had tolook for cheap source of labor. The only place where they could findthe cheap labor was in Caribbean and the individuals who were insub-Sahara were the Africans who were easily transported to differentparts of Europe. The cheap source of labor was acquired throughkidnapping and voluntary basis when the Africans were enticed withsome goodies (Worth, 2004). The newly discovered country had toattract various people so that it could stabilize economically andthis is the reason trade was being conducted. Later slave trade wasabolished and silver among other currencies were introduced.

The consequences of importing slaves from Africa according to Mannwere expensive to the white farmers and to the entire region becausethey used a lot of resources to treat malaria. This was the pricethat they were paying because of exploiting the African slaves.Additionally, the white farmers left their mansions and fertile soilto go and look for a safe ground where they could toil without beingdisturbed by the fever. This was an advantage to the Africans becausethey could work without supervision and a lot of exploitation sincethey were canned and worked for so many hours without getting wateror food. The white farmers were affected by the fever and many diedsince the discovery to cure malaria was yet discovered. In the moderntimes when individuals are moving from one country to the nextmedical checkups are done to ensure that diseases that can betransmitted from one individual to the next are subjected to drugsthat will suppress the infection or one is denied a chance to movefrom one country to the next. This plays a major role since theinfectious disease cannot be transmitted based on medical checkupshave to be considered. In relation to that, medical experts areconducting research concerning malaria on how can be a bit resistanceto human body.

The consequences in our modern times cannot be the same based on thefact that malaria is transmitted by plasmodium parasite which has thecapability to move in different parts of country and thus relocatingfrom one place to the next is not a cure. What one should do is toobserve the symptoms like vomiting, diarrhea, coma, headache and highfever among others. When such symptoms are noted it is important tovisit a healthcare so that drugs can be administered and they usuallytreat malaria very fast. Additionally, prevention is possible basedon vaccine are available and thus when one is traveling in areaswhere malaria is common then vaccine and certain drugs can be used toprevent it. Treating malaria is costly just like in that period whenthe black slaves transmitted it in the new world which caused a lotof misery to the Americans. What is being done today to change theoutcome is that the use of sleeping nets is commonly used and theymust be treated with insecticide that repels the mosquito.Additionally, drugs that treat the disease were discovered and thuspossible to cure it when it has been diagnosed.


Greer, A., &amp Bilinkoff, J. (2003). Colonial saints:Discovering the holy in the Americas, 1500-1800. New York:Routledge.

Worth, R. (2004). The slave trade in America: Cruel commerce.Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow.