EFFECT OF PEACE TREATIES IN WORLD WAR 1&2 1
Effectsof Peace Treaties in World War 1&2
Effect of Peace Treaties in World War 1&2
World War 1(WW1) is also known as the Great War or the First Word Warbegan in Europe on July 28, 1914 and ended in late 1918. World War2(WWW11 or WWW2) on the other hand lasted from 1939 to 1945.The firstwar took four year while the second war took six years. These twowars were the largest military battles in human history. Both WorldWar 1 and 2 battles involved armed treaties between diverse sets ofcountries.
World War 1 initiated when Australia-Hungary started combatingSerbia. This apparently minor battle on the two countries started tospread quickly, and third parties, such as the Great Britain,Germany, Russia and France began to be involved. These countries wereinvolved in this war because they had signed treaties, which aimed atprotecting other countries. It is worth noting that, eastern as wellas western fronts swiftly attacked along the boundaries of Germanyand Austria-Hungary (Crowhurst, 2013)
World War 1 had two sets of combatant nations namely the ‘AlliedPowers’ and ‘Central Powers’ and. The Central powers group hadnations like Germany, Turkey, Australia-Hungary and Bulgaria. On theother hand, the Allied powers group had nations like Russia, France,Japan, Italy, Britain and the U.S, which joined in 1917. Likewise inWorld War 2 there were two opposing factions ‘The Axis’ and ‘TheAllies’. The Axis group had nations like Germany, Japan and Italywhile the Allies group had Britain, United States, France, SovietUnion and China. The effects of this war were devastating as itcaused the Jewish genocide perpetuated by the German Nazis(Crowhurst, 2013)
The sequence of World War 1 led to progressive series of attacks andcounter attacks. The Ottoman Empire in Turkey lead to Armeniansgenocide in late 1914 when Germany misled Russia into thinking thatRussia had attacked it. British invasion took place in 1915 whereBritain attacked Turkey in Mesopotamia. In 1916 and 1917 the war wascharacterized by Trench warfare. In 1917, the United Statesretaliated and lodged war on Germany after German’s attacked the USship in Atlantic Ocean that prompted Russia to pull out. In 1918,World War 1 ended after the member nations of Central Power came toan agreement with Germany, whereby they signed armistice treaties,which was the last to sign in November 11, 1918. The armisticetreaties resolved the separation of Australia and Hungary into somesmall countries. In addition, the Treaty of Versailles was enactedwhere German faced strict sanctions that included heavy economicreparations, regional losses, and severe restrictions on itsprivileges to develop militarily (Crowhurst, 2013)
The Treaty of Versailles assertion for Germany to bear the greatestresponsibility for the war was harsh and many historians feel itseffects escalated to World War 2 instead of nurturing peace. TheGerman people were condemned by the stiff economic war reparationsforcing it to bear the financial burden of the war. Germany wasbarred from maintaining an air force and to have an army of not morethan 100,000 soldiers. The German economy was greatly affected by theeffects of the war and the economic sanctions that caused enormousresentment. The Nazi group took advantage of the antipathy and thedishonor to take over political power in Germany. The peace agreementinstead of resolving international conflict, it hindered cooperationbetween European countries and created more factions (Merritt, 2007).
The agreements also took part of Central Powers lands. The nationsaffected were Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria Ottoman, Germany andAustria-Hungary. The war led to cessation of Russian, German, Ottomanand Austro-Hungarian Empires. Moreover, Saint-Germain-en-Layeagreement striped Austria alliance with Germany. These treatiescaused more harm than good though they were meant to bring peace,their effects left an indelible mark with feelings of separation,disintegration, punishment and triggered World war 2 which wasinstigated by German aggression in September 1939.The main causes ofWorld war 2 were the economic and political instability in Germanyafter the imposed sanctions in Treaty of Versailles. The upsurge ofcommand of Adolf Hitler and his association with .Italy and Japan tooppose Soviet Union also catalyzed the war. The war led todevastating effects with approximately over 60 Million deaths .Theideological differences like communism and fascism constituted WorldWar 2.These differences were the after effects of World War 1agreements which were to a large extent the instigating factor toWorld War 2 (Merritt, 2007).
Crowhurst, K. (2013). World War 1. Clayton South, Vic: BlakeEducation.
Merritt, S. (2007).World War 2. Haddenham, Buckinghamshire:Folens.