Evolution and Creativity of Culinary Arts2


Evolutionand Creativity of Culinary Arts

Culinarycreativity owes its history from the identity of local foods thatdevelops as people from different parts of the world interact witheach other. Increased globalisation is responsible for the brokenboundaries of regional foods. Food local foods, culinary artdeveloped into an area that requires research and development thathas paved way for food innovation creating more possibilities fordifferent types of cuisines. In this paper, much emphasis will be onthe development of culinary art in terms of the meaning of creativecuisines, recipes, menus, and the presentation of different stages ofthe creative process that constitutes a complete piece of culinaryart. This discussion also focuses on individual and the environmentalissues that continue to affect the creative process of culinary art(Brown 2005, p. 48). A creative menu, as will be discussed later, isa prerequisite of a creative cuisine. The historical development ofcuisine art is an important aspect in understanding its evolutionthroughout the years.

Abrief timeline of the history of cuisine art

Between1563 and 1610, King Henry IV’s food was prepared by guilds for thefirst in England. During the industrial revolution, especiallybetween 1760 and 140, the food service industry in England underwenttremendous growth and diversification (Jauss and Benzinger 1970). Newconcerns about the quality of foods caused the introduction specialways of preparing food for consumers. In 1765, Monsieur Boulangerestablished the first professional handled restaurant in Paris as aprotest to the guilds that were responsible for preparing food. Therestaurant prepared a special sheep feet stew that was sold tocustomers. Antonin Careme was the first professional chef tospecialise in preparing Grande cuisine. Careme was the first culinaryprofessional use a classification system that grouped sauces, books,and kitchen tools. Between 1846 and 1935, Auguste Escoffier came upwith brigade system and created the classic cuisine style. Fernandpoint in collaboration with his students created the Nouvelle cuisinestyle, which used flavors and innovative combination of spices thatwere cooked for a short time. Geston Lenotre, born in 1920,established a culinary school so that he could train more chefs toget into the culinary industry that had a shortage of qualifiedbakers. Gaston was the sole caterer for the entire city of Pariswhere he used freezers to store his products. In 1962, Frran Adriabegan experiments in food that formed the foundations of moleculargastronomy. In 1965, the immigration of Act influenced many changesin the culinary industry of the United States. Many Asians emigratedinto the U.S. The immigration introduced different spices fromThailand and Vietnam. Chez Panisse, a restaurant that specialised insimple cuisines of the local origin became operational in 1971 inBerkeley, California, under the stewardship of Alice Waters. Thesimple foods prepared at Chez Panisse became the earliest example ofAmerican Cuisine.

Majorculinary artists and chefs

Culinaryart has grown to become a mainstream industry with chefs writingbooks and setting up foundations to support different culinaryrelated initiatives. Julia Child is one such example of a renownedculinary artist with a rich legacy of professionalizing culinaryeducation. In 1995, Child established TheJulia Child Foundation for Gastronomy and the Culinary Arts.Since its inception, the foundation provides grants to differentnot-for-profit organization as part of Child’s larger vision tosupport, appreciate, and enhance gastronomy and culinary art. Some ofthe institutions that have benefitted from the foundation includeBoston University College, which has offers learning programs ingastronomy and culinary arts, Careers through Culinary Arts (C-CAP),The Culinary Historians institutions based in Southern California,New York, and Chicago, The Food and Finance High School, Johnson andWales University, and the Les Dames d’Escoffier International(LDEI).

JamesPeterson is also every important figure as far as culinary art isconcerned. Peterson is among the few culinary artists withinternational acclaim. He has fifteen books with the latest henamed Cookbook.Inmany of his writings, Peterson talks about topics such as Sauces andVegetables. He is among the culinary professionals that have incisiveresearch and recipe testing manuals. Other writing books, Petersonalso engages in photography and food styling. Peterson is known forhis use of innards of the squab to create delicious sauces, amagnificent technique that is only in France. He introduced the artof using organ meat rather than the common gamey flavors that arecommonly were and still famous in U.S. culinary art. Through hisunique art and professionalism Peterson demonstrated the rare skillof turning smooth organ meat into soft butter and turning beurremonte into a menacing experience.

Foodand creativity

Themagnificent history of culinary art shows that its innovation processfrom one stage to the next was established upon the foundation ofdifferent traditions the same other forms of creative art havedeveloped throughout the passage of time. Food creativity as well,has its developments based upon the foundations of communitycultures. The cultural identity of a particular food type has alwaysbeen established so as to seek differentiation, identify the specificfeatures that distinguish from other food types, and reinforce thequalities that make local cuisine more attractive. The evolution ofcuisine art has also been shaped by different cultural groups wantingto show their traditional uniqueness (Gustafsson 2004, p17). Inother instances, the convergence of cultures causes an intentional orunintentional blend of food cultures among different social groupsleading to a unique form of culinary art. As the different styles ofshowcasing cultural identity evolve so are culinary arts. Cuisineart is a product of differentiation in cultural with examples likethe French champagne and German sausages. Culinary often develops inthe course of fulfilling the symbolisation role of local foodidentities where the process of production of traditionalingredients, menus, dishes are assembled and numbered into differentfood types and menu. Majority of creative cuisines come up and expandtheir food identity traditionally while introducing modern as well asknown elements that emanate from research and development. Thus,innovation creates a reasonable balance the between keeping thecultural aspects of a particular cuisine as well as the advancing thecreative aspects of its preparation.

Modernculinary art institutions

Asculinary art grows, institutions that impart skills also become morevisible and influential in causing growth in the industry. Onenotable example is the Institute of Culinary Education (ICE) in NewYork. The institution has considered one of the best in the industryfor coming up with a global culinary curriculum that instillsentrepreneurial skills among chefs and clear focus on innovation. Thecurriculum established at the Institute of Culinary Education alsoincludes an intensive training program on wine. Students can completethe training within a year. ICE won the prestigious InternationalAssociation of Culinary Professionals for five years. They provideaward diplomas to successful graduates in culinary art, hospitalitymanagement, and culinary management.

TheInternational Culinary Center is also an important modern institutionthat provides training in culinary art. It was established in 1984 asan American-based French Culinary Institute. It is one of the bestculinary institutions in providing the best culinary and wineeducation. Graduates are awarded with global connections to raisetheir careers in culinary art, confidence for their profession, andcredentials. The main areas of culinary art skills offered at the ICCare culinary entrepreneurship, wine studies, and Italian cuisine.

Thethird institution that is vital for the advancement of culinary artis the Le Cordon Bleu. It is one of the best in the world in trainingstudents in classic French culinary art styles. Some of the world’smost famous culinary artists graduated from Le Cordon Bleu. Theyinclude Natalie Dupree, Allan Susser, Ming Tsai, James Peterson,Dione Lucas, and Lydia Shire. Unlike other culinary schools thatprovide diplomas Le Cordon Bleu awards associate degree as well ascertificates to candidates that qualify in their programs.


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