FOR QUESTIONS 1-10 Read the passage and select the statement that BEST describes the passage`s significance.

English literature 2300

FOR QUESTIONS 1-10: Read thepassage and select the statement that BEST describes the passage’ssignificance.

1.Atthis time the island of Britain was called Albion. It was uninhabitedexcept for a few giants. It was, however, most attractive, because ofthe delightful situation of its various regions, its forests and thegreat number of its rivers, which teemed with fish and it filledwith Brutus and his comrades with a great desire to live there . . .. With the approval of their leader they divided the land amongthemselves. They began to cultivate the fields and to build houses,so that in a short time you would have thought that the land hadalways been inhabited.

A.)This passage suggests that Brutus is a hero because he fights withhis men to win the land that they desire and are rewarded with goods,an example of romancing.

B.)This passage uses great detail to emphasize the sheer bounty andbeauty of what they have fought hard to win. The moral is that if youwork hard you will get what you want, an example of romancing.

C.)This passage shows that conquest can be made to look better than itis, like mere cultivation of the land, an example of romancing.

D.)This passage suggests that history determines our future, an exampleof romancing. E.) None of the Above.

2.Although the window was quite high up, Lancelot passed quickly andeasily through it. He found Kay still asleep in his bed. He came nextto that of the queen Lancelot bowed low and adored her, for in noholy relic did he place such faith. The queen stretched out her armstowards him, embraced him, clasped him to her breast, and drew himinto the bed beside her, showing him all the love she could, inspiredby her heartfelt love.

A.)This passage asks us to consider whether we should take courtly loverseriously or not because it is described both erotically andreligiously.

B.)This passage suggests that Lancelot is able to achieve consummationwith the Queen because he follows his heart and lets nothing, noteven an impassible window or iron bars, stop him.

C.)This passage shows that ultimately the Queen is in charge of therelationship because she is the one who actively “drew” himtoward her and showed him, the passive recipient, her love.

D.)Both B and C.

E.)Both A and B.

3.He cut a hazel tree in half, then he squared it. When he had preparedthe wood, he wrote his name on it with his knife. If the queennoticed it— and she should be on the watch for it, for it hadhappened before and she had noticed it then— she’d know when shesaw it, that the piece of wood had come from her love. This was themessage of the writing that he had sent to her: he had been there along time, had waited and remained to find out and to discover how hecould see her, for he could not live without her. With the two ofthem it was just as it is with the honeysuckle that attaches itselfto the hazel tree: when it has wound and attached and worked itselfaround the trunk, the two can survive together but if someone triesto separate them, the hazel dies quickly and the honeysuckle with it.“Sweet love, so it is with us: you cannot live without me, nor Iwithout you.”

A.)This passage suggests that love transcends language, because themeaning of Tristan’s message is understood not literally butsymbolically.

B.)This passage demonstrates the dynamic of Tristan and Isolde’s lovethey are inseparable like the honeysuckle.

C.)This passage suggests that love is transient Tristan’s love forIsolde will one day fade, just like the honeysuckle.

D.)A, B, and C.

E.)None of the above.

4.For the eldest, Herebeald, an unexpected death-bed was laid out,through a brother’s doing, when Haethcyn bent his horn-tipped bowand loosed the arrow that destroyed his life. He shot wide and burieda shaft in the flesh and blood of his own brother. That offense wasbeyond redress, a wrongfooting of the heart’s affections for whocould avenge the prince’s life or pay his death-price? It was likethe misery endured by an old man who has lived to see his son’sbody swing on the gallows. He begins to keen and weep for his boy,watching the raven gloat where he hangs: he can be of no help. Thewisdom of age is worthless to him. Morning after morning, he wakes toremember that his child is gone he has no interest in living onuntil another heir is born in the hall, now that his first-born hasentered death’s dominion forever.

A.)This passage shows the king’s ability to take swift action to findout who murdered his son.

B.)This passage suggests that some acts cannot be avenged, even if thelaw requires vengeance.

C.)This passage illustrates that the king’s son who was murdered wascompletely innocent, thereby making his loss even more difficult tobear.

D.)Both B and C.

E.)Both A and C.

5.The peasant in his proverb says that one might find oneself holdingin contempt something that is worth much more than one believestherefore a man does well to make good use of his learning accordingto whatever understanding he has, for he who neglects his learningmay easily keep silent something that would later give much pleasure.And so Chretien de Troyes says that it is reasonable for everyone tothink and strive in every way to speak well and to teach well, andfrom a tale of adventure he draws a beautifully ordered compositionthat clearly proves that a man does not act intelligently if he doesnot give free rein to his knowledge for as long as God gives him thegrace to do so.

A.)This passage states that we should not judge a book by its cover.

B.)This passage allows Chretien to authorize his work by saying that hisknowledge comes from God.

C.)This passage allows Chretien to use fiction to compete with moreweighty genres like history and epic.

D.)Both A and B.

E.)A, B, and C.

6.Think how the Heatho-Bards are bound to feel, their lord, Ingeld, andhis loyal thanes, when he walks in with that woman to the feast:Danes are at the table, being entertained, honored guests inglittering regalia, burnished ring-mail that was their hosts’birthright, looted when the Heatho-Bards could no longer wield theirweapons in the shield-clash, when they went down with their belovedcomrades and forfeited their lives. Then an old spearman [Ashwarrior] will speak while they are drinking, having glimpsed someheirloom that brings alive memories of the massacre his mood willdarken and heart-stricken, in the stress of his emotion, he willbegin to test a young man’s temper and stir up trouble, startlinglike this: “Now, my friend, don’t you recognize your father’ssword, his favorite weapon, the one he wore when he went out in hiswar-mask to face the Danes on that final day?… Now here’s a sonof one or other of those same killers coming through our halloverbearing us, mouthing boasts, and rigged in armor that by right isyours.”

A.)This passage illustrates Ingeld’s competing loyalties to his wifeon the one hand and his biological family on the other, a frequenttension in Beowulf.


B.)This passage features an old warrior who reflects on his gloriouspast to explain why people of his day should act as he has.

C.)This passage suggests that treasure always carries with it a historyand can be both good and bad.

D.)A, B, and C.

E.)None of the Above.

7.)The King spent that night with Ygerna and satisfied his desire bymaking love with her. He had deceived her by the disguise which hehad taken. He had deceived her, too, by the lying things that he saidto her, things which he planned with great skill. He said that he hadcome out secretly from his besieged encampment so that he might makesure that all was well with her, whom he loved so dearly, and withhis castle, too. She naturally believed all that he said and refusedhim nothing that he asked. That night she conceived Arthur, the mostfamous of men, who subsequently won great renown by his outstandingbravery.

A.)This passage illustrates the sordid roots Arthur had to overcome inorder to spin his reputation as a great king.

B.)This passage illustrates Ygerna’s cunningness in secretlyestablishing a line of female warrior-rulers to combat Arthur’smen.

C.)This passage illustrates Geoffrey’s attempt to whitewash sexualaggression so that it becomes unclear whether a rape occurred or not.

D.)Both A and C.

E.None of the Above.

8.)My lady, if you will tell me what sin it was that caused me suchdistress, I am prepared to atone for it at once.” “What?” thequeen replied. “Were you not shamed by the cart, and frightened ofit? By delaying for two steps you showed your great unwillingness toclimb into it. That, to tell the truth, is why I didn’t wish to seeyou or speak with you.” “In the future, may God preserve me fromsuch sin,” said Lancelot,” and may He have no mercy upon me ifyou are not completely right. My lady, for God’s sake, accept mypenance at once and if ever you could pardon me, for God’s saketell me so!”

A.)This passage illustrates Lancelot’s willingness to shame himself inthe public eye if it means enjoying a private life of bliss with theQueen

B.)This passage illustrates how difficult it is for Lancelot to pleasethe Queen and suggests that she may not be worth the trouble neededto do so.

C.)This passage illustrates the fraught relationship between Lancelotand the Queen.

D.)Both A and B.

E.)A, B, and C.

9.There was no knight in the city who really needed a place to staywhom he didn’t invite to join him to be well and richly served.Lanval gave rich gifts. Lanval released prisoners, Lanval dressedjongleurs [performers], Lanval offered great honors. There was nostranger or friend to whom Lanval didn’t give.

A.)This passage illustrates the way in which Lanval’s private life oferoticism with the fairy mistress has made him a better person in thepublic life.

B.)This passage, by repetition (anaphora) of Lanval’s name, shows thathe is the passive recipient of all the goods that the fairy mistressnow gives him.

C.)This passage illustrates the homosocial bonding that becomesthreatened by the Queen’s accusation of homosexuality.

D.)Both A and B.

E.)A, B, and C.

10.Erec truly had his fill of joy and was well served according to hiswishes, but it was far from pleasing to the woman who was sittingupon the silver bed. The joy she saw did not please her a bit—butmany people have to look on in silence at what distresses them. Enidebehaved most courteously: because she saw the maiden sittingdejectedly alone upon the bed, she decided she would go and speak toher and tell her about her affairs and her situation and ask herwhether she might in turn tell her about herself, provided that didnot unduly displease her . . . Enide replied at once and recountedthe truth to her: “I am the niece of the count who holds Laluth inhis domain, the daughter of his own sister I was born and raised inLaluth.” At this, before she heard any more, the maiden could notkeep from laughing. She was so overjoyed that she completely forgother sorrow. Her heart leapt for happiness and she could not concealher joy. She went to kiss and embrace Enide, saying: “I am yourcousin, be certain that this is the absolute truth: you are myfather’s niece.


A.)This passage provides Erec and Enide with a happy ending bydemonstrating that Enide and the maiden are cousins.

B.)This passage solves the problem of chivalry that has perplexed Erecby showing what the results of doing social good for others can be.

C.)This passage complicates ideas of chivalry by showing that womenoften lose out when men do battle, a problem not easily solved.

D.)Both A and B.

E.None of the Above.

ForQuestions 11-20, Select the best answer.

11.All of the following are true of Beowulf except:

A.)The poem ends ambiguously, suggesting that glory and fame have bothpositive and negative outcomes.

B.)Wealhtheow acquiesces too easily to Hrothgar’s implicit suggestionthat Beowulf become one of his own kin for saving his people fromGrendel.

C.)Beowulf’s life and honor as king is implicitly compared to thosesame qualities in Shield as presented in the opening of the poem.

D.)The poem often explores the limits of its own cultural values andcustoms.

E.)All are true.

12.)All of the following are true of Geoffrey of Monmouth and his Historyof the Kings of Britain except:

A.)Geoffrey was deeply familiar with Biblical, Roman, and English modelsof history and models his work closely on all of them.

B.)Geoffreyis the first English writer to give women at least as much agency asmen in his narrative.

C.)Geoffrey’s work engages with the history of the Norman Conquest byproviding the AngloNormans with a model of history in which only menof a certain class can rule well.

D.)The brutalities of conquest, authorized by Diana, are emphasizedabove all else in Brutus’s founding of England.

E.)All are false.

13.)All of the following are true of Chretien de Troye’s Erec and Enideexcept:

A.)Erec changes throughout the narrative and grows as a person onaccount of key insights into his relationship with Enide.

B.)The Joy of the Court scene finally resolves the tension between loveand adventure, which is at play throughout the work.

C.)The poem often proceeds by exploring trivialities that lead to morecomplex episodes or character development.

D.)Enide’s name is withheld for several thousand lines to make hermore mysterious and difficult to interpret.

E.)All are true.

14.)All of the following are true of Chretien de Troye’s Lancelotexcept:

A.)Courtly love is treated as both a sacred ritual and an object ofridicule in the poem.

B.)Though Lancelot initially gets in the cart and brings such shame tohimself, the poem keeps recuperating his character by showing hisgreat deeds.

C.)Lancelot’s love for Guinevere seems noble especially when comparedto Gawain and King Arthur’s love for women.

D.)In Lancelot, there is usually a healthy balance between private loveand public adventure, the two components of romance.

E.)All are true.

15.)All of the following are true of Marie de France’s Lanval except:

A.)Lanval unambiguously lives happily ever after and gets everythingthat he wanted at the end of the poem.

B.)Lanval initially lets his horse go to symbolize his lack of interestin the courtly world.

C.)Arthur and his men unfairly exclude Lanval from their society at thebeginning of the poem.

D.)It is never clear to us why the fairy mistress comes back to saveLanval, even though she swore she would disappear forever if hementioned her name.

E.)All are true.

16.)In her Prologue, Marie de France uses all of the following toauthorize her except:


B.)A famous Latin grammarian.

C.)The technique of translating ancient authors faithfully.

D.)Her own ingenuity.

E.)She uses all of these.

17.)All of the following can without question be considered romances intheir entirety except:


B.)Erec and Enide

C.)The History of the Kings of Britain


E.)All can without question be considered romances in their entirety.

18.)Which of the following best describes the fall of Arthur’s kingdomin The History of the Kings of Britain?

A.)It is a momentous event, and Geoffrey suggests that Arthur can neverbe replaced.

B.)Women, who for so long have remained silent in the text, make thebest of a bad situation and prevent any further damage to the kingdomby convincing the knights of an appropriate strategy.

C.)It is handled nonchalantly, like a blip on the radar screen Arthuris just one more king who will be replaced by another. No big deal.

D.)It happens just the way it was predicted in the Aeneid, Geoffrey’ssource text.

E.)None of the above.

19.)All of the following are qualities of epic and can be found inBeowulf:

A.)A slow and expansive pace of action.


C.)Concrete noun-based vocabulary.

D.)Concern for memory and oral composition.

E.)All of the Above.

20.)Which of the following statements is false?

A.)Chretien stopped composing Lancelot at some point, and another writerfinished it.

B.)Though Marie calls herself “Marie de France,” her writingsurvives in an Anglo-Norman dialect and she dedicates her work to anEnglish king, so it is assumed that she lived in England when shewrote her Lais.

C.)Beowulf was written somewhere between the 8th and 10th centuries.

D.)The History of the Kings of Britain was originally written in Latin.

E.)All are true.