INSTITUTIONS IN EUROPE 1
EuropeanUnion is an economical-political union located in Europe consistingof twenty eight independent member states. It was founded on 1stNovember 1993 with an aim of fostering social, political and economiccooperation.it operates though a system of formal and informalinstitutions .these institutions are: the council of the EuropeanUnion, the European Commission, the European Parliament, the EuropeanCentral Bank, the Court of Auditors and the Court of Justice of theEuropean Union.
Theinstitution of the European Council defines the political prioritiesand the general direction of the Union. It comprises heads of states,the president of the council and the president of commission. It wasestablished in 1975 as an informal summit and later in 2009, wasformalized as an institution. The council is active in areas such as:economy and finance, home affairs, environment and internationalrelations and foreign affairs. Financial economic crisis is a majorconflict in this area.
Institutionof the European Parliament was established in 1952 as a commonassembly of European steel and coal community and in 1962, wasformalized as a European parliament.it is a law-making body where EUvoters elect the EU body every five years with the recent electionsdone in May 2014. The directly elected body performs supervisory,legislative and budgetary responsibilities. The work of theparliament work in two stages, in the first stage the committeeprepare legislation while in the second stage, the legislation ispassed. Conflict in fighting electoral fraud and protection to humanrights is a major issue in this area.
TheCouncil of the European Union was established in 1958 with no fixedmembers.it is responsible for making decisions. It adopts andnegotiates legislative acts. It also implements EU security andforeign policy. It coordinate policies in member states in certainfields such as: employment policies, economic policies, education,youth culture and sport policies. Discussion and votes are taken inpublic which require a qualified majority for a decision to bepassed.
TheEuropean Court of Justice was established in 1952. The court applydirectives and laws coming from the commission. The court also, canhear cases of the commission itself against the member states. Thecourt comprise of three bodies: the court of justice, civil servanttribunal and the general court. The court of justice has one judgeand eleven advocates, the general court has one judge and the civilservice tribunal has seven judges. It deals with employment rights,trade and professional sport and services.
TheCourt of Auditors was established in 1975 comprising of one memberper member state. It main role is to monitor the finances of theEuropean Union and highlight areas that need managerial improvement.It checks the organization or person in charge of the EU funds andwrites recommendations and findings in the audit reports. Annualreport is produced for the council of European Council and EuropeanParliament for approval. There is budget conflicts on the differencebetween the much a country pays from what it returns.
TheEuropean Central Bank was established in 1998, consisting ofnineteenth member states. Its role is to maintain price stability,conduct EU monetary and economic policy within the Eurozone. It hasthree governing bodies: General council, Executive Board and Generalcouncil. The General council assesses monetary and economicdevelopments and contribute to coordination and advisory work. TheExecutive Board implements the monetary policy and prepares councilmeeting.
Visionof EU is creating new prospects for development of business,supporting develop[ing countries in becoming stable, efficientpartners and ensuring transparency, honesty and credibility in bothpolitics and business count. It also fights for respect for humanrights and dignity and democracy in all countries involved.
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GEORGEBERMANN ET AL., CASES AND MATERIALS ON EUROPEAN UNION LAW (2d. ed.,2002) (Book) (in the ILJ office) (3d. ed. 2010 available inelectronic form) Comprehensive treatise on the law, history, andstructure of the European Union, co-authored by ILJ faculty advisorProfessor Roger Goebel.
Craig,Paul P. (2010) the Lisbon Treaty: Law, Politics, and Treaty Reform.Oxford: Oxford University Press