Instructional Design


Literature Review

According to Tinuke (2013), team building entails an array ofactivities, aimed at enhancing team performance. The objective ofteam building is to ensure employees are able to work together insolving workplace problems. Arrey (2014) further explains that teambuilding refers to the procedure of assisting a work group to be moreefficient in achieving its tasks. In addition, Arrey (2014) explainsthat team building is a collection of activities aimed at improvingthe operation of workplace teams. Team building is significant in anyorganization as employers seek ways of enhancing the productivity oftheir employees. Organizations view team-based structures as the mostappropriate approach to engaging all workers in achieving businesssuccess (Tinuke, 2013). Thus, it is important to conduct training onteam building, specifically targeting new supervisors.

Training on team building for new supervisors is important because,supervisors that become team leaders encounter a change in theirrole. Instead of directing work, as team leader, the new supervisorwill act as a coach or mentor (Carr, 1992). Hence, skills in teambuilding will be required, which are attained through training. Thereare best practices that must be followed when conducting the teambuilding training. Salas et al (2012) note that when planning tocarry out training, the first step is to conduct a training needsanalysis. It should happen before the training begins and shouldfocus on the needs of the new supervisor. The needs analysis involvesdetermining what the new supervisor needs to learn and for who (Salaset al, 2012). Notably, because the training is on team building, theneeds analysis must focus on teamwork demands the new supervisor islikely to encounter (Smith-Jentsch et al, 2001).

Second is ensuring that the learning environment supports training(Salas et al, 2012). The new supervisors have their expectations fromthe training on team building, which are likely to influencelearning. When the needs are unmet, it is likely that the traineeswill be less committed and motivated to take part in the training(Sitzmann, Bell, Kraiger &amp Kanar, 2009). As new supervisors, thetrainees realize that they lack skills that may be needed in teambuilding. However, the organization should center the training on thebenefits to new supervisors, instead of highlighting the deficits intrainees. This ensures that the supervisors are motivated to takepart in the training. Another important practice in regard to thelearning environments is on when to schedule training. Skill decay isan issue of concern when an organization is offering training. Itrefers to losing what has been trained (Salas et al, 2012). Hence,training should be scheduled not long before when the new supervisorswill be required to use the skills learned in team building.

After ensuring that the learning environment supports training, thenext step is to establish the training design (Salas et al, 2012). Atthis step, the organization needs to choose the suitableinstructional approaches. In addition, is ensuring that training isdesigned in a way that it meets the specific learning needsidentified during the first step of needs analysis. Research showsthat it is important for the training to be designed in a way that itpromotes self-efficacy. This can be achieved by allowing the traineesto be in charge of their learning (Salas et al, 2012). Availableliterature on effective training notes that a thorough trainingdesign, communicates the training depicts anticipated behavior fromtraining makes it possible for trainees to practice what is taughtand gives feedback on how well the trainee is doing.

Research shows that some practices are most effective, specificallywhen training supervisors. For instance, Hankins and Kleiner (1995)note that successful training approaches include role-playing, use ofdiscussions and case studies. The authors note that trainingstrategies like lecturing increase passivity. However, when traineesare engaged they are able to be active during the training process.The argument is supported by Goyette (2016), who argues that teambuilding training should be practical. The author argues thatpractical training is more meaningful to the trainee.


In developing training for new supervisors on team building, thefirst step is to communicate to the identified supervisors about thetraining. A needs analysis is conducted to ensure the different needsof the supervisors and what they need to learn about team building,which is then communicated to them. This is achieved by asking thesupervisors to share on what they know about team building. The nextstep is placing the new supervisors in the learning environment. Thisis followed by implementation of the training design. Instead oflecturing the new supervisors on team building, the training will bemore practical. This is important because the new supervisors mustlearn how to work as teams, in order to ensure they become effectiveteam coaches. All through the training, activities will be createdlike role-playing where every supervisor will have a different role.Real world scenarios will be designed and the supervisors will berequired to solve the situation through situation and behaviorexercises.


Arrey, O. B. (2014). Team building as an organization developmentstrategy. Global Journal of Management and Business Research,14(3), 1-5.

Carr, C. (1992). Planning priorities for empowered teams. Journalof Business Strategy, 13(5), 43-47.

Goyette, P. (2016). Why managers need team building training that’spractical. Organizational Training and Development. Retrievedfrom:

Hankins, C &amp Kleiner, B. H. (1995). New developments insupervisor training. Industrial and Commercial Training,27(1), 26.

Salas, E., Tannenbaum, S. I., Kraiger, K &amp Smith-Jentsch, K. A.(2012). The science of training and development in organizations:What matters in practice? Psychological Science in the PublicInterest, 13(2), 74-101.

Sitzmann, T., Bell, B. S., Kraiger, K &amp Kanar, A. M. (2009). Amultilevel analysis of the effect of prompting self-regulation intechnology-delivered instruction. Personnel Psychology, 62,697-734.

Smith-Jentsch, K. A., Salas, E &amp Brannick, M. T. (2001). Totransfer or not to transfer? Investigating the combined effects oftrainee characteristics, team leader support and team climate.Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 279-292.

Tinuke, F. M. (2013). Towards effective team building in theworkplace. International Journal of Education and Research,1(4), 1-12.