Interactionbetween State, Federal and National Government (Security)
Interactionbetween State, Federal and National Government (Security)
Theway in which the local, state and governments are organized in the USvaries from one state to another. On one side, they have some commonfeatures, however, their organization may differ. On the other hand,there is the federal government which plays an essential role inmaintaining unity between the different states. Due to the differencein organization as well as differences in the presence of naturalresources, there ought to have a relation between the different stategovernments and the federal government. On the other hand, differentaspects results of more relation/interaction between states and thefederal/national government. For example, issues or departmentsconcerned with budget, immigration, health, security policies andgeneral rule of protecting the Americans, school, marriage, anddriving licenses issuance. These and other critical issues cannot bedecided and provided by the state government alone and in turn theinteraction with the national and federal government for smoothexistence of both governments.
Inthe United States, the making and functioning of the government aregreatly influenced or affected by the functionality and the relationbetween the state administration/state government, the federal law,and the national law. The country’s constitution is well definedand elaborates the functions and mandates of every government. Inorder to have an existing and conflict free between theadministration the relationship between the states and the federallaw as well as the national government (National Security Strategy ofthe United States, 2015). The state government in the United Statesused to refer to the governments of the first thirteen states andalso the governments that belonged to the rest of states which wereadmitted to the United States through the authorization of thecountry’s constitution and article IV section 3. The United Statesis one of the renowned countries for its type of government, as itdeploys the federal government. This is whereby the system ofgovernment is contained of dividing power between small localgovernments’ and stronger national government. This paper dressesthe interaction between the local/state governments’ and thenational government in the united states, with reference to the issueof national security or security concerns, who should be responsible,how the two governments’ works together to implement it, and theshortcoming of the current practice.
Theapplication of federalism has been a known case in developed nations.With respect to the United States, the application of the federaltype of government is attributed to the country’s size. One keyadvantage related to the use of the federal type of government isthat it enables a region with numerous differences and diverse groupof people with different needs to be served in accordance with theirneeds, but still remains united through a sting culture. This befitsthe case of the United States, which in addition to being a largenation, it is inhibited with diverse people groups, but all of whomare united by a strong United States culture. On the other hand,federal type of government helps in addressing a wide range of needs,especially for a geographically large nation like the case of US.This, in turn, explains why this is practiced in large nations suchas Brazil, US, Canada, Australia, Mexico among others. Focusing onthe case of the United States, the country’s constitution createdthe federal system of government. This enactment limited the powersof the national government to some definite areas such as thecollection of taxes, provision for defense, money borrowing oncredit, regulation of commerce, creating and regulation of currency,declaring war among other duties or roles (National Security Strategyof the United States, 2015). The country’s tenth amendment of theconstitution has given all other powers to the state government.
Securityin the United States
Inevery country, one of the key aspects that are definitely a nation isthe security department or the security measures that are implementedtowards averting and security threats to the country. In the UnitedStates, the department of homeland security is a department withinthe federal government. This means that the primary responsibilityfor the country’s security concerns lies with the federalgovernment. With a clear division in terms of what the state andfederal government oversee, the federal government is mandated toissues affecting all the Americans at large. On the other hand, thefederal government has a way of influencing the state and localgovernments’ through the issuance of block grants as well ascategorical grants. These are grants given to the local and stategovernment by the federal with the exchange of the state governmentcomplying with the federal requirements (Sarkesian et al, 2013).
Inresponse to the 9/11 attack, the united states primary securityconcerns were mandated by the federal government, which isresponsible for offering protection of the entire country as well asprotect the nation from terrorist attacks, natural disasters as wellas man-made disasters. In addition to the homeland security, thedefense department is in charge of military actions. It is thehomeland security that works on the civilian levels to offerprotection to the US citizens within, in and outside the nation. In anutshell, the stated goal of homeland security is summarized as PPR“prepares, prevent and respond to any domestic emergency mostimportantly terrorism.
Oneof the areas whereby the state and federal governments’ interactstowards the provision of security is through the work of the police.The police services are within the powers of state and localgovernment. However, the police department also works hand in handwith the homeland security department to ensure effective provisionof security. Comparing the state and the federal government in termsof security related concerns, it is the federal government that ismandated with powers of controlling the country`s security however,the state governments are an essential element as it givesinformation concerning security breaches in the nation. On the turnof the march 2003, the homeland security took over the immigrationdepartments and related issues of the country. In addition toadoption of the immigration department, the homeland security tookcharge of the country’s investigative division and intelligencewhich enabled for the implementation of the investigative measures toensure the immigrants to the country doesn’t pose a security threatto the Americans. The state government works hand in hand toimplement the federal laws. However, the state government is mandatedto make its own laws, but should not be implemented to counter thealready set laws by the federal (Gerston, 2007). In addition to theprovision and interaction towards the country’s security concernsbetween the state and the federal government, there has been also anincreased interaction between the two governments, which is throughthe immigration policies. The growth and increased immigrants to theUnited States, has focused on the increased control of what kind ofpeople relocates to the country.
Roleof National Government Supremacy towards Security
Despitethe role of state and federal government in the provision of thecountry security details, both within and outside the borders, therole of national supremacy government should equally be considered anessential tool towards security concerns. In order to make a uniformimplementation of security details and measure, it would be ideal forthe national supremacy to take charge of the security of all thestates. One of the major changes and influencing aspects of thesecurity department is the establishment and implementation of thesecurity laws. With the homeland security being the key department inconcern with security, it should be under the national supremacy.This not only would it ensure effective funding of the department,but also the establishment of equal measures implemented towards theprovision of security to the Americans.
Throughthe implementation of the national government as the securitycaretaker, there would a uniform control and funding within thedepartment, which would, in turn, ease up the blame game as one stateis more committed than the other. However, the state is the basicorganization in the United States setting that determines powerdistribution in a specified area, and on the other hand, thegovernment acts as the mechanism that permits as well as controls thestate`s day to day operations. With this in the mind, the nationalgovernment would, in turn, help towards the realization of enough andequal funds, personnel, and needed a facility for security in withinall the states, and the borders at large. Despite the development andimplementation of the federal form of government, there have beenissues related to the identification of a proper balance between thestate, national and federal powers (Sarkesian et al, 2013). Staterights have in one way remained a controversial topic over a coupleof years, as the Americans has been divided over the same as to whichshould be reserved for the states, and what should be left in thecare of the national and federal powers.
Shouldthe security details and concerns of the United States be underfederal or the national government? According to me, despite thestrong basis of the American government, and interrelation betweenthe local/state and the national government, the development andimplementation of security measures should be mandated to thenational supremacy. Some of the questions that continue to shape thedebate over the issue of security between the state and federalpowers include should security be a concern of the individual state,federal government or the national supremacy through uniform policy?Should the state be empowered to budget for security expenses forthemselves or is the security policy a large enough issue to becatered by the national power? Should the state government be allowedto employ own security organs, and undertake separate securitymeasures?
Overtime, united states have been faced with increased number ofimmigrants. In some cases, some have led to increased levels ofinsecurity due to illegal immigrants. In order to implement equalityamong all people, the national government should be mandated to takecharge of the security docket. In order to promote the essence ofequality, security details such as a hospital, officers should betaken through the same training and protocols, which would help inimplementing an equal security strategy. With the implementation ofdefined security measures in areas such as banks, airports, schoolsamong others, should be under the care and rotation of well trainedand implements the same strategy (Gerston, 2007). The implementationof same security strategy would be effective when the federal andnational government are in control rather than the state governmenttaking care of its own needs.
Thefinancial ability of the state government varies from one state tothe other. This, in turn, means that, in the same states, there maybe effective security measures, strategies and personnel’s, whileit may be difficult for others to support security to the maximum.The indulgence of the federal and national government in the issuesof security would mean equal training, financing, facilitation anddeployment of security laws in all the states, and the country atlarge. And with such measure, there will an increased sense ofsecurity among the Americans as effective strategies will beimplemented in all the states. With the increasing cases ofinsecurity such as terrorism, drug trafficking, human trafficking,hate crimes, racism, burglary and kidnapping among others, thefederal and national government would make the ideal forces curb theinsecurities (Dautrich & Yalof, 2009).
Despitethe focus of the national government, the state government equallyplays an important role towards the realization and achievement ofmaximum security to the Americans. It should be the role of thestates to ensure the funds given by the federal/national governmentare well implemented towards the security objective. The interactionbetween the state and the federal government is an inevitable forcewhen there is a need to realize effective strategies for securitymeasures. The use of federalism has allowed the united states remainunited under the same culture while at the same time giving thestates, powers to manage their resources. The key reason forcentralized control of security is to have a common strategy to fightdefinite security breaches that many face the country. For example,the issue of realizing abortion or marijuana, has brought massivedivision between states. This is whereby some states, views thesepractices as unacceptable and against human culture as well as beingunethical. This, in turn, should be avoided in security concerns(Bulman-Pozen, 2014). This is whereby if states are permitted tohave their different measures of security, there may be the presenceof loopholes, which may pose a security threat not to one, but to allthe other states. This, in turn, calls for the uniform implementationof security measures, and effective collaboration between thelocal/state, federal and the national government.
Inconclusion, the practice of the federalism in the United States hasbeen a breakthrough in terms of the country’s management andadministration. Despite the federal government being a key playertowards the country’s security concerns, it is clear that the stategovernment is equally responsible for the country’s security byproviding security in their individual states. With regard to thecountry tenth amendment of the constitution, the powers which aren’tassigned to the federal government, the state government takescontrol. Not only the issue of security that brings the twogovernments’ together, there are other interactions points throughwhich the two interacts. On the other hand, the role of nationalgovernment cannot be ignored despite the major role of security beingundertaken by the federal branch of the government. With thechanging magnitude of security concerns, the security issues andconcerns of the country should be mandated for the nationalgovernment. The implementation of federalism in the United States,the system has been focused on the aspect of the Americans gainingthe power to govern them as much as possible. It is clear that thefederalism system has achieved a balance between the powers andduties of the state and federal government, which has, in turn,contributed to the functioning of the country’s security departmentfor the past 150+ years.
Bulman-Pozen,J. (2014). Partisan Federalism. HarvardLaw Review, 127(4),1078-1146.
Dautrich,K., & Yalof, D. A. (2009). Americangovernment: Historical, popular & global perspectives.Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Gerston,L. N. (2007). Americanfederalism: A concise introduction.Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe.
NationalSecurity Strategy of the United States. (2015). MilitaryTechnology, 3917-42.
Sarkesian,S. C., Williams, J. A., & Cimbala, S. J. (2013). USnational security: Policymakers, processes, and politics.Boulder, Colo: Lynne Rienner Publishers.