Interactions between the Intestinal Microbiome and Liver Diseases Abstract

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Interactionsbetween the Intestinal Microbiome and Liver Diseases

Abstract

Thehuman intestine entails a variety of microbes’ community whichenable digestion and metabolism. Any disturbance caused on itshomeostasis can lead to infections or disease. Disruptions ofintestinal homeostasis are caused by several factors that contributeto Steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, Non-alcoholic fatty liverdiseases (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver ailments. Liver ailments aremostly associated with overgrowing alterations within the intestinalmicro-biota. The external factors such as alcohol, smoking and thechanging diets are associated to these changes. Dysbiosis leads toinflammation of the intestine, microbial products’ translocation aswell a collapse of intestinal barrier. However, the factors resultingto liver diseases are quite vast. It also includes microbialmetabolites that are produced within the dysbiotic intestinalenviron. This paper analyses the different factors i.e. collaborationof homeostasis disturbances and liver insult in causing liverailments [ CITATION Bre151 l 1033 ].

Theintestine and the micro-biota i.e. bacteria as well as other microbesform a symbiotic relation. The micro-biota enables synthesis ofvitamins, resistance to pathogens and digestion, yet it haspathogenic bacteria. Variance of intestinal microbe results in manydisorders like liver diseases. Additionally, liver ailments emanatefrom disturbances of intestinal homeostasis. This paper will look todiscuss the relation of dietary factors, alcohol consumption amongothers to the structure of intestinal microbe and liver ailments. Anumber of liver ailments will be reviewed in relation to the changesin intestinal microbe structure [ CITATION Bre151 l 1033 ].

Background

Theroot problem being researched on are the factors that disturb theintestinal homeostasis thereby contributing to liver ailments. Withthe cases of liver diseases continually rising, the study looks atthe major factors behind this increase. External factors are majorcontributors to this disruptions. Generally, liver diseases continueto affect people even though research has narrowed down the causes.Substantive information on the detrimental facets leading to liverdiseases continue to emerge owing to immense research works on thesame.

Purposeof the study

Thisstudy seeks to outline the core factors contributing to liverailments. Several kinds of liver ailments exist with the causesvarying. The study is therefore meant to analyze several liverailments and provide logical causes of the same.

Hypothesis

Variousfactors that contribute to interruption of intestinal homeostasisresult in liver ailments. In addition to that, changes to thestructure of the intestinal microbe result in liver ailments. In thatregard, changing dietary as well as consumption of alcohol are amajor contributor to liver ailments.

Methods

Thestudy analyzes some aspects of liver ailments and the factorscontributing to the diseases. The different diseases includeNon-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), Steatohepatitis, cirrhosisand alcoholic ailments. The study assesses each kind of liver relateddisease mentioned above as well as its cause. The studies wereconducted on patients suffering from liver ailments. The methodologyincluded stool samples, pyro-sequencing of 16S rRNA gene andQuantitative real-time PCR [ CITATION Bre151 l 1033 ].

Resultsand discussion

Non-alcoholicFatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and NASH

NASHis characterized by inflammation of the liver and fibrosis. Resultsindicated victims of NASH or NAFLD have lower levels ofRuminococcaceae as compared to healthy persons.Findings on the comparisons of the bacteria taxonomical compositionsof NAFLD victims versus NASH varied considerably. This is due to thevarying methodology utilized, limited samples as well as varyingcohorts. Overgrowth of small bowel bacteria is another disorderwhereby numerous bacteria develop within the small intestines.Results suggested that obese victims or NAFLD infected, had highrates of overgrowth of small bowel bacteria [ CITATION Bre151 l 1033 ].

Alcoholicliver ailments

Abuseof alcohol is one major cause of chronic liver ailments. As per theresults, alcoholic patients have lower levels of Bacteroidaceaecompared to non-alcoholic persons. Another study showed bacterialovergrowth along the gastrointestinal tract in samples that hadconsumed alcohol. Dysbiosis showed considerable reductions inprobiotic bacteria like Pediococcus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc andLactobacillus [ CITATION Bre151 l 1033 ].

Cirrhosis

Inthis case, a patient’s morbidity or mortality depends ondevelopment of liver cirrhosis. Increased pathogenic bacteria iscommonly seen in cirrhosis patients. Overgrowth of intestinalbacteria is a common feature among cirrhosis patients as illustratedby results. A number of factors that give rise to cirrhosis includereduced bile, changes in immunoglobulin secretion and reducedmotility of small intestines [ CITATION Bre151 l 1033 ].

Conclusion

Causesof liver ailments depend on quite a variety of factors. The majorcause entails disturbance of human intestine homeostasis. Anydisruptions to the symbiotic relation between intestine and themicrobiota can lead to ailments. As portrayed by the results obtainedfrom the various liver diseases, there is a general consensus thatdietary including alcohol abuse is a major contributor to liverailments. They cause disruptions of the normal processes within theliver thereby generating ailments. Though the results are not exacti.e. vary considerably, there is no denying that liver diseases aremainly caused by human activities pertaining the body.

References

Brenner, B. S. (2015, January 15). Interactions Between the Intestinal Microbiome and Liver Diseases. Retrieved from Interactions Between the Intestinal Microbiome and Liver Diseases: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3996054/