IsIQ a True Measure of Intellectual Ability?
IsIQ A True Measure of Intellectual Ability?
Intelligencequotient (IQ) is the total score that that an individual achieves ina set of several standard tests aimed at measuring intelligence of ahuman being (Sternberg, 1994). Intellectual ability, on the otherhand, is the ability of an individual to reason and think criticallyin the acquisition of knowledge or information under given set ofcontexts (Navas-Sánchez, 2014). Clearly IQ is not a measure ofintellectual ability.
IQInvolves the score of tests to measure the intelligence. It should bepointed out that the score achieved depends on exposure to certainenvironmental dispositions (Ferrando, Prieto, Ferrandiz, &Sanchez, 2005). The person`s performance largely depends on the kindof knowledge that they have acquired over time. The implication ofthat is that identical twins who get exposed to differentenvironments may not achieve the same score in IQ after a givenperiod (Sternberg, 1994). The difference in their score would happendespite their equal or similar capabilities. The question is whywould there be a difference in their score of IQ? The explanation forthis is that the richer the environment that one is exposed to, thehigher the score. Some given sets of conditions stimulate the brainmore and hence promote reasoning more than other environments. Thatdifference of exposure is what ultimately determines the score ofthese individuals (Navas-Sánchez, 2014).
Intellectualability, on the other hand, enables the individual to analyze eachsituation uniquely to arrive at a logical conclusion. The analysis ata given time is not a function of the environments that the personhas been exposed to in the past (Jackson, 1977). Such individuals canassess the contexts and conditions provided, and are then able tomake deductions to suit those particular conditions. Intellectualability should, therefore, be considered superior to IQ. Theindividual is an independent thinker who can overcome challengesbased on the contexts of those challenges (Maroldo, 1975). The personmay not have performed well in some IQ measure but can createsolutions in the day to day situations. They possess skills tocontextualize situations, gauge their implications, consequences, andlikely outcomes before they can make an informed decision.
TheIQ is, therefore, a part of the intellectual ability, but theintellectual ability is the comprehensive capacity of the individualto perform in a broad range of situations (Watson, New South WalesInstitute for Educational Research., & Australian Council forEducational Research (ACER), 1988). The IQ measures reasoning andanalytical skills but a person who scores highly in such tests maynot necessarily be able to provide tangible solutions to some givenchallenges (Blum, 1978). Therefore, a change in the contexts underwhich some IQ scores were achieved would disorient a person leadingto difficulties in overcoming challenges. In real life situations,the best students don`t necessarily turn out to be the mostsuccessful people later in life. The difference in the performancebetween their academic score and other achievements in life are basedon the change of contexts. Their ability to contextualize eachsituation is put to the test.
Inconclusion, it is clear that an individual who does not score ashighly in IQ may have higher intellectual ability than someone withhigher scores in IQ. The Intellectual ability is therefore much moreinclusive and comprehensive as it defines the full abilities of anindividual (Benbow, Lubinski, & Stanley, 1996).IQ is thereforenot an accurate measure of intellectual ability.
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