Management Perspective Analyze Aircraft Payloads for Overweight Conditions and Proper Loading of an Airplane

ManagementPerspective: Analyze Aircraft Payloads for Overweight Conditions andProper Loading of an Airplane

ManagementPerspective: Analyze Aircraft Payloads for Overweight Conditions andProper Loading of an Airplane

Thechoice and preference for an aircraft are pegged on the requirementsof its mission and the specific economics at play (Conners, 1995).Every other type of aircraft is unique in its capability andlimitations exist that dictate the optimum payloads for theoperations. In instances, where there is no match between the stagelengths of airline network and the payload employed, the aircraft issaid to be overweight.

Thispaper provides analysis of aircraft payloads for overweightconditions and proper loading of aircraft. In doing the analysis, thepaper offers insight on aircraft payload and performance from theperspective of a manager. Often, the payload analysis entailsanalyzing the Maximum Take-off weights (MTOW) and the variouscomponents to analyze the payload capability of the aircraft atdifferent ranges (Nelms Jr, Murphy &amp Barlow, 1976).

Analysis

Accordingto Nance (1993), excessive weights is limited to the certifiedmaximum weight. The additional fuel, the fuel carrying facilities,and the various navigational equipment that are added to form part ofthe intended flight determine the maximum weight. If severalalterations are done, there is a need to weigh the aircraft to findout the weight of the aircraft and the limits in regards to Center ofGravity (CG). Smith (1983) affirms that there is a need to havecomputation evaluated and analyzed for accuracy. Upon establishingthat aircraft is overloaded, Nance (1993) highly encourages thatmaximum weight in regards to the payloads be determined for the sakeof safe operation of the aircraft.

Inhis work, Williams &amp Ockels (2009) noted that operation ofaircraft over the certified maximum weight is a recipe for uniqueconditions above the ones that are encountered with fixed-wingaircraft. Therefore, it is mandated that operating limitations beprescribed as deemed necessary. When establishing the aircraftpayloads for overweight conditions and proper loading of an airplane,numerous conditions exist have to be fulfilled. Nelms Jr, Murphy &ampBarlow (1976) posit that determining the aircraft payloads foroverweight conditions and proper loading is conducted in all areasexcept those places where they might cause hazards and damage topersons. Some of these places include cities, the towns, villages,and congested places.

Takingoff is a critical point for overweight aircraft. Arguably, Gomes &ampRamos Jr (1998) posit that upon determining the payload in theaircraft, a given type of runway has to be used for the overweighttakeoff and the landing in the appropriate areas. Further, ininstances where there is en route stop scheduled for overweighttakeoff, proper documentations have to accompany, and they includeContact FAA office which includes the routing symbol, telephonenumber, and city. Additionally, there is the attachment of a copy ofthe FAA Form 337 that covers the extra fuel-carrying facilities andequipment in the aircraft. Additionally, Yeo &amp Johnson (2007)noted that special entries are made to take note of the requiredinspection of the aircraft for cases of possible damage owing to thepayload determination pointing to overweight in aircraft.

Foroverweight conditions, the payload is high, and this is anundesirable situation for the aircraft. Notably, an increase inpayload happens because the aviators have to accept some compromiseand proceed to load some heavy objects in the fuselage or wings. Acase in point is fuel, which is unavoidable. As Smith (1983) noted,flying most of the aircraft is made easier when they are light, andthe flights are difficult when the aircraft is heavy.

Toallow for overweight conditions, Ridolfi, Pontani &amp Teofilatto(2010) noted that the manufacturers have a primary rule of making themachines very light. The manufacture of the aircraft is done withoutcompromising the strength and safety of the aircraft and onlyincludes the loads that are critical for the flight. Often, the totalpayload in an aircraft changes owing to the changes in the contents,which include the passengers, fuel, and cargo.

Whenproper analysis of payloads for the overweight crafts as well as theproper loading of the aircraft is not done, the aircraft can beweighted down with objects to a point where it may not functionefficiently. Thus, Smith (1983) maintains that the pilot of anaircraft has to be aware of the consequences of overloading. Anoverloaded aircraft or one with more than the certified payload maynot leave the ground. Every aircraft has its limits, and when it getsbeyond certain limits, the operations become inferior, and there isthe possibility of a disaster occurrence.

Overtime, researchers have appreciated the fact that aircraft is the mostsusceptible to problems when the weight issues are disregarded.Often, the weights of aircraft are in exceeded. Additionally, when anaircraft has weight problems, the first indication of poorperformance will occur during the takeoff, and this is quite anunfortunate point for the aircraft and is a problem to the pilot. Itis noted that excessive weight reduces the flying capability of anaircraft in regards to every other operation. The overweight aircraftin terms of the payloads are known to suffer different deficienciesincluding longer time to take off, reduced cruising speed, highstalling speed, higher landing speed and reduced climbing rate.

Thispaper has provided analysis of aircraft payloads for overweightconditions and proper loading of aircraft. In doing the analysis, thepaper offered insight into aircraft payload and performance from theperspective of a manager. Before operating the aircraft over thecertified maximum weight, it is mandated that operating limitationsbe prescribed as deemed necessary. It is also noted that increase inpayload happens because the aviators have to accept some compromiseand proceed to load some heavy objects in the fuselage or wings. Fromthe paper, it emerges that when proper analysis of payloads for theoverweight crafts as well as the proper loading of the aircraft isnot done, the aircraft can be weighted down with objects to a pointwhere it may not function efficiently.

References

Conners,T. R. (1995, June). Predicted Performance of a Thrust-Enhanced SR-71Aircraft with an External Payload. In&nbspASME1995 International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress andExposition&nbsp(pp.V002T02A001-V002T02A001). American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Gomes,S. B. V., &amp Ramos Jr, J. G. (1998, May). Airship dynamic modelingfor autonomous operation. In&nbspRoboticsand Automation, 1998. Proceedings. 1998 IEEE International Conferenceon&nbsp(Vol.4, pp. 3462-3467). IEEE.

Nance,C. K. (1993).&nbspU.S.Patent No. 5,214,586.Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

NelmsJr, W. P., Murphy, R., &amp Barlow, A. (1976). Preliminary analysisof long-range aircraft designs for future heavy airlift missions.

Ridolfi,L., Pontani, M., &amp Teofilatto, P. (2010). Effect of differentflight conditions at the release of a small spacecraft from a highperformance aircraft.&nbspActaAstronautica,&nbsp66(5),665-673.

Smith,R. K. (1983). The Intercontinental Airliner and the Essence ofAirplane Performance, 1929-1939.&nbspTechnologyand Culture,&nbsp24(3),428-449.

Yeo,H., &amp Johnson, W. (2007). Aeromechanics analysis of a heavy liftslowed-rotor compound helicopter.&nbspJournalof Aircraft,&nbsp44(2),501-508.

Williams,P., &amp Ockels, W. (2009). Dynamics of towed payload system usingmultiple fixed-wing aircraft.&nbspJournalof guidance, control, and dynamics,32(6),1766-1780.