Purposive sampling technique, specifically the maximum variationsampling is required. This sampling procedure will be able to capturea broad range of perspectives over the topic of study. This samplingtechnique provides identification of common themes across studyparticipants. Considering the purpose of the research questions, theavailable time for the research and the resources available, this isthe appropriate sampling technique which fits this research. Thesample size, on the other hand, will be sufficient to reach a levelof redundancy as this indicates that no new information has beenhaving remained uncollected.


One hundredand thirty one female and male high school science studentsvolunteered to take part in the study. The students participated instate-mandated cooperative learning programs during science classesthree times per week for one hour each session for a duration ofthree months. Thirty one student were form the senior level while theremaining one hundred students were form the junior level. No studentwithdrew from the program due to any reason whatsoever. Theprocedures used in this study were according to the high schoolethical studies of the country.


This research methodology will use the social constructivism in themethod session. The philosophical orientation is because thisresearch seeks to understand the experiences of science students whohave been part of the cooperative learning. Constructionism is aphilosophical orientation approach that is relevant in educationalresearch. Constructivism focuses on the roles that participants andresearch observers within study play in an attempt to shape theworld’s understanding on various concept in education. Cooperativelearning is a collaborative method of learning that uses the conceptof social constructivism in the classroom. The social constructivismconcentrates on the individual-construction and thesocial-construction of an individual’s mind (Andrews, 2012).

With the use of the open-ended, in-depth questionnaires, the researchwill be asking broad, and open questions that do not limitparticipants to answering. The participants will hence give feedbackon the different progresses mad within the classroom setup. On thesame note, this research will be the focus on the changes that areassociated with the interaction processes between students in scienceclasses. Due to these qualities, this research therefore qualifies tobe a field research.


The research is a field research. The study offers broader approachto this qualitative study through the in-depths interviews andobservations made on the participants within the study. Theresearchers will react with students through attending thecooperative learning classes to make observations on the participantsunder study. Afterwards, the students will be given questionnaires tofill. This research seeks to present a detailed analysis of aparticular group of students. The specific group of pupils is theones who attend science classes. Has also been able to underpin thestudy of different theories.

DataCollection Methods

This research will be conducted in three phases. The first phase willinvolve the filling of the questionnaires with the participantswithin the program before starting the cooperative learning classes.The second phase will involve observations being made duringcooperative learning sessions by researchers. The final session willinvolve the filling of the questionnaires after intervention iscompleted by the participants within the study. This research beingqualitative in nature, the information gathered will provide in-depthdata and information like the emotions, human behavior, andpersonality. This study will use primary data to ensure that theresearch collects first-hand information from the science studentswho have been under the cooperative learning program. To gatherindividual’s perspectives and experiences primary sources of datawill be gathered from in-depth interviews and observations madeduring the cooperative learning science classes. The detailedquestionnaires that will be used will be unstructured in nature. Theinterviews will be conducted on a face to face basis givinginterviewers time to ask for clarifications and at the same time makeobservations.

DataAnalysis MethodsDocumentationof Data

Documentation will include notes that were taken during theinterview, notes made from observation of the reactions and behaviorsof participants in the study, the feedback, and comments receivedfrom the participants of the survey. For record preservation, thewritten documented feedback will be kept within the researcharchives. Documentation is essential for keeping on track with theproceedings of the data collection and analysis while at the sametime also encourages conceptualizing and strategizing.

Conceptualization,Coding and Categorizing Data

Conceptualizing being the second step for data analysis will beginwith a simple observation that will be directly interpreted thenanalyzed. This research will use dada-coding of the informationretrieved from sources of data. Coding of data will involve definingwhat the data being analyzed is about. The researcher will identifypassages of texts and apply labels to them indicating they havethematic ideas. With the presence of thematic ideas, the researcherwill be able to retrieve quickly and collect together data.Categorizing data will involve grouping of data into differentcategories to establish a framework or thematic ideas.

Validityand Reliability

This research will maintain validity and relaibilty by observing thefollowing.

  1. The research will make sure that informants are very clear on the nature of the research to the participants within the study.

  2. The researchers within the study will build a trust-relationship with the subjects. The researchers will additionally stay in that setting for a long period of time

  3. The research will conduct the in-depth interviews with the same informant on two occasions and by making observations all through the cooperative learning sessions.

  4. The research will compare the results obtained with other evidence

  5. The research will confirm findings and analysis with the informants

  6. The research will keep precise and detailed field notes to note the differences in responses over the course of time


There will be no intrusion of privacy for all the individualsinvolved in this study. Proper guarding of collected information willensure that originality and authenticity are maintained. To ensurethe above, data collection methods will be of high quality. Thisresearch will also negotiate with participants on the appropriateapproach that will ensure privacy and confidentiality.

The researcher will provide that members suppress any delicate pieceof information gathered unless the information does not pose a threatto the participant within the study. This study will ensure that thefield notes or any given data collected are owned by the regularmembers or personnel at all time.

Action will be taken in case of any inappropriate or misuse of theresults collected from this study. This research will not proceedunless informed, and voluntary consent of any involved party isgained. This research will owe it to all the parties involved in thestudy that there is strict adherence to analysis methods believed toproduce authentic information.


1. This research is likely to suffer from financial difficulties.There might be a need for too much cost incurrence during thisinvestigation as staff members, and people will be required toconduct all proceedings in all steps.

2. This research will is again likely to face financialconstraints as the researchers will be forced to perform severalinterviews over multiple areas.

3. The interview for this study will be administered on paperhence, there will be an increase in cost and expenses.

4. The quality of data being dependent on the abilities of theinterviewer, the research might collect data of poor quality while atthe same time some interviewers are likely to collect biased data.

5. Analysis and interpretation are expected to be time-consumingdue to the vast amount of data that will be collected.

6. Responses given by respondents may not be genuine due to thepresence of the researcher during a gathering of data.


Cooperative learning plays a significant role in ensuring thatstudents can efficiently learn. Through this strategy of learning,students develop into better tomorrow leaders. This research istherefore dedicated to determining the positive impact that isassociated with cooperative learning strategy and improvedperformances in sciences.


Andrews, T. (2012). What is Social Constructionism? The GroundedTheory Review, 11(1), 39-46.

Kolar, K., Ahmed, F., Chan, L. &amp Erickson, J. P. (2012). TimelineMapping in Qualitative Interviews. A Study of Resilience withMarginalized Groups. International Journal of QualitativeMethods, 14(3), 13-32.

Singh, A. J. &amp Schmidgal, R. S. (2012). MethodologicalLimitations and Proposal to Improve Lodging and Feasibility Studies.Journal of Hospitality and Financial Management, 8(1), 13-18.