Obesity is a disease that results from an energy imbalance where anindividual consumes more calories than is required by their bodies.It remains to be a significant health problem causing public healthissue with it contributing to many deaths across the United States(Ogden, Carroll, Kit & Flegal, 2014). Obesity is caused bygenetics, but the environment plays a significant role in increasingchances of development of the condition. Obesity is a heritabledisease. Genome-wide studies have depicted an association betweenobesity and genetics. Notably, nine loci have been determined to beinvolved in hereditary obesity that is monogenic while fifty-eighthave been shown to play a role in polygenic obesity. However, thescientists identify that many genes involved in obesity are yet to benamed (Ogden, Carroll, Kit & Flegal, 2014). The environment playsa role when it comes to the development of the condition. Individualshaving the predisposing genes have a high chance of developingobesity. The chances of development of the disease are high on thekind of lifestyle they are leading. For example, the environment thatsuch individuals live in may be characterized by a poor eating habit(Ogden, Carroll, Kit & Flegal, 2014). Persons likely to sufferfrom the same end up ingesting foods that are rich in the low-densitylipoproteins. The individuals fail to exercise enough to facilitatethe usage of the excess fats in the body. In such a case, theenvironment plays a vital aspect when it comes to the progression ofobesity (Maher et al., 2013).
Manifestations and Prognosis of obesity
Obesity manifests through an increase in the overall body mass index(BMI). The normal BMI of a healthy individual ranges from 18-24kg/m2. (Flegal, Carroll, Kit & Ogden, 2012).However, for patients who are suffering from obesity, the BMIis often greater than 30 kg/m2. . The patients dopresent with hypoxemia while another percentage of the patients willpresent with obstructive sleep apnea. Patients suffering from obesitytend to present with other predisposing conditions such as type 2diabetes mellitus because of the disruption of cellular metabolismresulting in insulin resistance. Obese persons do have an excess ofadipocytes resulting in the secretion of excess cytokines that leadto the vascular dysfunction especially hypertension and dyslipidemia(Flegal, Carroll, Kit & Ogden, 2012). The conditions do manifestas hypercholesterolemia and triglyceridemia. Eventually, the patientsend up suffering from atherosclerosis coupled with insulin resistancethat results in metabolic syndrome. The pathophysiology of obesityemanates from the fact that the excess free fatty acids lead tolipotoxicity causing oxidative stress to the endoplasmic reticulumand the mitochondria. Such accounts for the pathophysiology ofobesity.
Risk outcome of obesity
People suffering from obesity have a likelihood of developing anotherdisease. The first is a stroke. Obesity leads to the buildup of fattyplaques in the arteries. An excess of the plaques may result inrupture of the arteries (Maher et al., 2013). If the same occurs inthe arteries supplying blood to the brain happens, it could lead to astroke. Such can affect the supply of oxygen to the brain.
Obesity increases chances of one developing coronary heart disease.The condition is characterized by the presence of plaque building upin the arteries that supply the heart (Landsberg et al., 2013). Ifthe arteries build up, the chances are that it could result in ablockage impairing blood flow to the heart causing angina.Eventually, if the condition is not addressed, it could lead to heartfailure. The heart fails to pump blood to meet the needs of the body.
Finally, obesity may result in the hypoventilation syndrome wherethose suffering from the condition end up suffering from a breathingproblem. Because of the challenges in breathing, there is a chance ofbuildup of carbon dioxide with little oxygen in the blood.
Research into the risk of full-blown manifestations of the diseasetrait under various environmental or physiological conditions
Research has been conducted into understanding the risk factors forobesity under different environmental and physiological conditions. Obesity remains to be a primary risk factor for the different formsof cancer. Research has been conducted regarding the effects ofobesity on cancers of the breast, colon, renal and prostate (Flegal,Carroll, Kit & Ogden, 2012). The mechanism for the same was seenin the development of hyperinsulinemia that was determined to be aprimary risk factor for the colon cancer patients who are sufferingfrom obesity. Hyperinsulinemia is caused by an accumulation of sugarin the body system. However, since patients are unable to utilize theexcess sugars fully because of insulin resistance (Landsberg et al.,2013). The body is producing insulin, but it is unable to convert theexcess sugars to forms that can be used by the body. Specifically,researchers did point out that the effects of insulin resistance,diabetes, an increase in BMI did contribute to the pathogenesis ofcolon cancer. The cancer is manifested in the form of cellularproliferation, apoptosis, inflammation, and angiogenesis. Suchpatients have been determined to produce adipokines that result incancer (Landsberg et al., 2013). Some of the types of adipokinesresulting in the promotion of the cancers are the insulin growthfactor-1 and leptin. Obese patients have an abnormality of the sameresulting in an increase in chances of development of cancers.
Flegal, K. M., Carroll, M. D., Kit, B. K., & Ogden, C. L. (2012).Prevalence of obesity and
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Maher, C. A., Mire, E., Harrington, D. M., Staiano, A. E., &Katzmarzyk, P. T. (2013). The independent and combined associationsof physical activity and sedentary behavior with obesity in adults:NHANES 2003‐06. Obesity,21(12), E730-E737.
Landsberg, L., Aronne, L. J., Beilin, L. J., Burke, V., Igel, L. I.,Lloyd‐Jones, D., &Sowers, J. (2013). Obesity‐relatedhypertension: Pathogenesis, cardiovascular risk, and treatment—Aposition paper of the The Obesity Society and the American Society ofHypertension. Obesity, 21(1), 8-24.
Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Kit, B. K., & Flegal, K. M. (2014).Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States,2011-2012. Jama, 311(8), 806-814.