Probation Parole



Theprimary role of the criminal judicial system is to deter crime andreform offenders using strategies that reduce recidivism. This callsfor the use of different strategies depending on the perceivedeffectiveness of each of the strategies. This paper will discusswhite collar crimes and probation and parole.

  1. Community supervision has become a popular means of punishment over the past twenty years. Discuss community supervision, along with the pros/cons and hypothesize whether or not the advantages of community supervision outweigh the disadvantages. Defend your answers with research and references.

Communitysupervision refers to the placement of defendants under the continuumof sanctions and programs by the court for a specified period oftime. Community supervision is considered as an alternative thetradition of incarcerating offenders (Collin County Government,2016). Offenders under the community supervision are allowed to livein their respective communities, but they should deliver certainservices to those communities, their families, restitute theirvictims, and agree to undergo rehabilitation processes. Communitysupervision has both merits and demerits. For example, communitysupervision has been shown to be 15 % more effective in reducing therate of crime compared to the prison sentences (Blunkett, 2016).Studies have also shown that it costs about $ 52,000 to incarcerateone offender per year, which a community supervision program costsabout $ 5,695 per year, which means that community supervision is acost effective program (Blunkett, 2016). In addition, the programallows offenders to continue living in the community, which makes iteasy for them to re-integrate as compared to offenders who are heldby the prison system. However, the program may increase fear amongthe victims since they continue seeing their offenders from time totime. The community supervision program has more advantages thandisadvantages.

  1. Distinguish the differences between indeterminate sentencing and determinate sentencing. Which do you believe we currently utilize in our judicial system? Justify your answers with current events (cases) and research.

Indeterminatesentencing refers imprisonment of offenders for a range of duration,where the sentencing judge determines the minimum as well as themaximum length of time that the offender will be imprisoned. Underthis system, the incarcerated offender is required to serve theminimum term after which the parole board determines whether theoffender has undergone adequate reforms to integrate back to thecommunity. The parole board may recommend the release of offenderswho have demonstrated satisfying levels of change in behavior beforethe maximum sentence period is reached (Portman, 2015). Under thedeterminate sentencing, offenders are sentenced for a fixed durationthat cannot be changed by any government agency, including the paroleboard. Research shows that determinate and indeterminate sentencingare being used by the U.S. courts, where the number of cases leadingto indeterminate sentencing has increased by 8 % from 2007 to reach22.7 % of all decided cases (Government of Canada, 2016). Therefore,the two types of sentencing are used in the U.S. Courts, butdeterminate sentencing is more common.

  1. Various personality traits affect one’s behavior and crime rates. Discuss id, ego and superego and evaluate how these are connected to criminal behavior. Support your explanation with examples and research.

Personalityplays the role of reflecting one’s totality of attitudes, beliefs,and behaviors. Scientific research has identified several mechanismsthrough which personality contributes towards criminal behavior. Forexample, some super-traits within the personality structure of anindividual person contribute towards the development of antisocialbehavior, which acts as a risk factor for criminal behavior in amodel known as the personality-train psychology (Shoukat, 2015). Thepersonality-type model, on the other hand, holds that people withdeviant behavior must possess at least one criminal personality thatmay be labeled as antisocial, sociopathic, or psychopathic (Shoukat,2015). The theories of psychoanalysis hold that criminal behaviordevelops as a result of an imbalance of id, ego, and the superego.The role of id is to contain unconscious desires and it is governedby the principle of pleasure. The ego suppresses immediategratification and help people focus on long-term goals. The superego plays the moralizing role by helping individuals perceive theidea self (Shoukat, 2015). An individual develops criminal behaviorwhen the super ego becomes suppressed while the strength of the idcontinues to increase, which leads to the immediate gratificationthat can mainly be achieved through crime.

  1. Discuss the qualifications needed for one to become a probation/parole officer. Do you believe these qualifications are sufficient? Support your answers with research and references.

Theacademic requirements for becoming a probation officer include abachelor’s degree in the fields of criminal justice, psychology,criminology, human relations, sociology, and public administration(Probation and Pretrial Office, 2016). First time applicants arerequired to have reached the 37thbirthday. Potential candidates are expected to have some experiencein the fields of probation, parole, pretrial, criminal investigation,custodial, or addiction treatment, but the period of experience mayvary depending on the job position and jurisdiction. Theeffectiveness of the parole system is largely determined by thequalification or the competence of its labor force. Recent studiesconducted in 15 States indicate that about 62 % of the offendersreleased were re-arrested or at a high risk of recidivism Dickerson,J. (2015). This confirms that the probation officers and the entiresystem are ineffective in helping offenders undergo satisfactoryreforms. The current recruitment process emphasizes more on academicqualification and the level of working experience while emphasizingless on the competencies of individual parole officers.

Whitecollar crime

  1. Discuss the various types of crimes against consumers. Evaluate whether or not these crimes occur in all neighborhoods or if they are class restricted.

Someof the common types of crime that are committed against consumersinclude identity theft, scams, telemarketing schemes, and fraud. Allthese types of crime take different dimensions and they can beorchestrated by the employees of the companies, outsiders, or acollaboration of employees and outsiders (Levinson, 2000). There isno sufficient evidence to link any social class with any of the typesof crime, but the risk of being a victim depends on the type oftransaction. Although the telemarketing schemes affects seniors morethan young people, trends indicate that any consumer can bevictimized irrespective of the neighborhood or the social class.

  1. Discuss the findings of the study completed by David Caplowitz regarding white collar crime. How significant were these findings in the study of white collar crime?&nbsp How appropriate are the findings in today`s environment?

Thestudy conducted by David Caplowitz to investigate the vulnerabilityof people to different types of crime indicated that the poor peoplewere more vulnerable to several consumer crimes. David Caplowitz heldthat poor people were more likely to be overcharged, victimized bymeans of deceptive credit cards, complicated consumer contracts, andbeing sold substandard goods (Caplovitz &amp Cohen, 1972). The studyfindings were significant because they expanded the knowledge ofknowledge on white collar crimes and a platform on which furtherstudies could be conducted. However, these findings may not beappropriate for the modern environment because one’s vulnerabilityto white collar crimes is mainly determined by different factors,such as the type of transaction and technology (Levinson, 2000).

  1. We live in a global society. Criminologists have included such globalization environments in their research of white collar crime. Discuss the unique problems that globalization brings on the study of white collar crime.

Theconcept of globalization has affected the study of white collarcrimes in two major ways. First, globalization means that people cannow invest in different countries, which has been a common occurrencein the capital market. This has created an opportunity for corruptpoliticians, directors, and other perpetrators of organized crime tosteal from potential investors, which complicates a study on whitecollar crimes (Young, 2016). Secondly, globalization goes along withtechnology that allows business to be conducted at the internationallevel. The fact that business can be conducted from differentcountries with different laws and procedures of regulating trade andtechnology-based transactions makes it difficult to research on whitecrimes.

  1. Discuss the reasons why organized crime is so difficult to detect, investigate, and prosecute.&nbsp What suggestions would you provide to help alleviate these problems? Justify your answers with examples and cases.

Thereare several factors that make organized crimes relative difficult toinvestigate, detect, and prosecute. But three of them are moresignificant. First, organized crime involve activities (such asintelligent accounting and manipulation of transactions) that arerelatively less visible unless with the help of competent auditors(Henderson, 2013). Secondly, the law enforcement agencies fall shortof adequate skills and personnel to address the regular and theorganized crimes at the same time. Third, organized crimes are, inmost cases, done by or involve the participation of the influentialof government officials who are able to block an investigation orhide the evidence. Third, pressure from the public is less inorganized crimes than other types of crime because the public has alimited knowledge of the organized crimes.


Thebenefits of community supervision outweigh its disadvantages, whichmean that the criminal judicial system should put more offenders inthe community service program. The use of indeterminate sentencinghas been increasing with time following a perception that it willreduce unnecessary sentence period for offenders who have undergonereforms successfully. The white collar crimes affect consumersdepending on the type of transaction. In addition, the lack of publicsupport, involvement of the influential government officials, and thelimitation of resources make it difficult to investigate, detect, andprosecute perpetrators of organized crimes.


Blunkett,D. (2016). Alternatives can be better at reducing re-offending.RethinkingCrime and Punishment.Retrieved March 17, 2016, from

Caplovitz,D. &amp Cohen, S. (1972). Theneighborhood offices of the law enforcement division of thedepartment of consumer affairs: The final report.Hayward, CA: Department of Consumer Affairs.

CollinCounty Government (2016). Frequentlyasked questions.Texas, TX: Collin County.

Dickerson,J. (2015). Parolefound to be ineffective in helping cons go straight / re-arrest ratesfor parolees, the unsupervised essentially the same.San Francisco, CA: Hearst Communication.

Henderson,L. (2013). Factors which allow the problem to continue. Crimeof Persuasion.Retrieved March 17, 2016, from

Levinson,B. (2000). Crimeagainst consumer.Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.

Portman,J. (2015). Indeterminateversus determinate prison sentences explained.Berkeley, CA: NOLO.

Governmentof Canada (2016). Corrections and conditional release statisticaloverview. Governmentof Canada.Retrieved March 17, 2016, from

Probationand Pretrial Office (2016). Requirements for probation and pretrialservices officer. Probationand Pretrial Office.Retrieved March 17, 2016, from

Shoukat,S. (2015). Whatare the strengths and weaknesses of psychological explanations ofcrime?Manchester: Manchester Metropolitan University.

Young,T. (2016). White collar crime. Crimeand Social Justice.Retrieved March 17, 2016, from