Psychopharmacology

1.At resting potential, the ion is not equally distributed on theoutside, and inside of the cell. Additionally, the membrane of thecell is selectively impermeable to different ions. In neurons thatare electrical, active membrane potential is in steady state and istermed as resting potential (Conn, 2008). Resting potential involvesboth potassium and sodium ions, and the membrane is highly permeableto the two. Unequal distribution of these ions leads to restingpotential of a cell, potassium to inside from outside and sodium tooutside from inside. There is, therefore, a higher concentration ofsodium on the outside than inside and potassium is also highlyconcentrated on the inside than outside.

2.Action potential generation is the process where the membrane isdepolarized rapidly from resting potential to a more positivepotential and this is achieved by cations including either sodium orcalcium influx through ion channels. The process takes place at thepotential initiation zone. Particular types of voltage-gated ionchannels generate the action potential (Yalowchuk, 2009). Thechannels open in response to depolarization and allow an inward flowof sodium ions. Electrochemical gradient changes and, in turn,produces a rise in membrane potential. More channels open to producea greater electric current across the cell membrane. The processcontinues until all the available ion channels open. The rapid influxof sodium ions makes polarity of the membrane to reverses and ionchannels inactivate. The influx of these positively charged ionsfurther depolarizes the membrane leading to the opening of thevoltage-gated sodium ions (Rhoades, R., &amp Bell, D. R. 2009). Assodium channel close, sodium ions cannot enter the neuron and theyare transported back out of the plasma membrane.

3.Methamphetamine has an effect on the brain by increasing the amountof neurotransmitter dopamine and hence high chemical in the brain.Dopamine is involved in motor function and also the experience ofpleasure. The ability of methamphetamine to release dopamine rapidlyin the brain produces the euphoric rush that users experience.Alcohol affects the brain directly by altering the levels ofneurotransmitters. Alcohol affects both the inhibitory and excitatoryneurotransmitters. Alcohol suppresses glutamate which is anexcitatory neurotransmitter resulting in the slowdown in brainhighways. Alcohol increases the effects of GABA, which is aninhibitory neurotransmitter. GABA causes sluggish movement andslurred speech in alcoholics (Herman&amp Frankenheim, 2003).

4. My expectation in the course of psychopharmacology is to get abetter understanding of mental disorders and their treatment. Ishould also be able to know the clinically relevant principles ofpharmadyconamics and pharmacokinetics. I expect to understand basicneuroscience and clinical medicine since medication is used to treatmental disorder. I hope to learn interactions of drugs and how theyaffect the brain in case of a disease. I also expect to understandthe availability of medication to the body, how it stays in the bodyand drug to drug interaction how they affect one another (Herman&amp Frankenheim, 2003).

5. Itis true that medications regarding Mental illnesses can be effectivewhen combined with therapy. Someone undergoing depression should useantidepressants for treatment along with proper psychoanalysis, and,therefore, I support my colleague. Besides, talking to the patientshelps them take their medication and realize its importance. I oncehad a friend who was given a dosage of antidepressants, but she chosenot to take them. As a result, her relatives took her to see apsychotherapist who persuaded her concerning the importance of takingthe drugs. She realized the essence and doubled the medicine withfurther therapy sessions which helped her a lot. Therefore, becausemedical illness is severe, the patients should be under expertsupervision.

Iagree with my colleague that many professionals have similar thoughtswhen treating certain disorders. There are also some experts who havea different opinion on treating mental conditions. A psychotherapistcan give advice that contradicts others hence leaving the patient ina dilemma. An example is when an individual with bipolar disorder istaken to a professional and is only given medication then sent backhome. When the patient goes to another psychiatrist, they recommendthe patient should be admitted to the facility since the condition issevere. Is consulting for help necessary? I think consultation isrequired so that a patient get the right medication and dosage.

6.Patients often receive medication of evaluation of a mental healthprofessional. Patients get a prescription for the antidepressant orother drugs without knowing other evidence-based treatments. Forexample, antidepressants used on many patients and they are notbenefiting from the pharmacological effect of the drug but placeboeffect. Psychotropic is critical in treating mental disorders, butthe wrong prescription is dangerous. Psychotherapy can achieve thesame effect as antidepressant without causing any side effect like arelapse. Drugs should not be readily given because some people orpatients become dependent on medication quickly. An example includessleep drugs which pose a risk of premature death and increased cancerrisk. They are addictive, and once the patients take them, he or shesuffers withdrawal symptoms worse than initial insomnia. Some alsobecome less effective when used for an extended period. Prescriptionfor these medicines should therefore not just be done by anybody buta qualified psychiatrist. There is a basis of strong evidence thatthe patients suffer from insomnia before prescription.

7.Patients with bipolar disorder have increased in numbers clinicaldiagnosis has improved. The increase indicates that the field ismaturing when it comes to recognizing the disease. People levels ofawareness have increased, and therefore, they go to the hospital incase of any problem for diagnosis. Patients that suffers from bipolardisorder have been recognized and hence the increase in number.Bipolar disorder was underdiagnosed due to inadequate facilities, andthere is now a correction to this problem. Another reason is alsooverdiagnosis of the condition. Therapists should provide bettermethods of dealing with symptoms of the disease. The therapist shouldalso ensure that the patient truly suffers from the disease beforegiving any help.

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Conn,P. M. (2008).&nbspNeurosciencein medicine.Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

Herman,B. H., &amp Frankenheim, J. (2003). Glutamateand addiction.Totowa, N.J: Humana PressBottomof Form

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Rhoades,R., &amp Bell, D. R. (2009). Medicalphysiology: Principles for clinical medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams &amp Wilkins.

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Yalowchuk,Jonathan, Dr. (2009). YourAction Potential.Tate Pub &amp Enterprises Llc.

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