Review of Manuel Castell`s Article
The article Toward Sociology of the Network Society by ManuelCastell is set to explain how technology along with the exponentialgrowth is transforming the society every second. As much as thearticle dated fifteen years ago, most of the issues brought upassociate to the modern day society. The following texts provide areview of Castell’s work.
Castell begins his article by highlighting the role of sociology inexplaining societal changes. He proceeds to describe the new societythat commenced in the 21st century. The author then discusses thenetwork society with its social structure based on the InformationAge. He moves to theorize the social fabric as related information ofsystems and concludes by defining a new methodology applied bysociology scientist to explain and account for changes in thesociety.
Castell argues that both sociologists and people will fail tounderstand the multi-dimensional social changes they experience ifthere is no consent on sociology as a science. He argues that newsociety then is because of interconnection of nodes, which make upthe networks. Castell theorises new occupational structure as anoutcome of the information interactions among value making, relationmaking and decision-making (Castell 6). Eventually, he argues thatthe new methodology requires new perspectives, new concepts, newissues and new tools.
Castell is overall insightful, well informed and precise concerninghis research on sociological changes and ideas. He makes an importantpoint about the role of information in the contemporary society. Thedispersion of information regarding networks connection hascontributed to the society changes that prompt other changes such asfinancials systems and schooling (Castell 693). It is true that thesystem defines the current epoch of the social, political andeconomic features of the society. Other contemporary theorists suchas Darin Barney and Felix Stalder also share the view that thenetwork society is more relevant presently as compared to any otherin history.
Overall, Castell’s theory of the network society is hugelysignificant in perceiving the contemporary forms of socialinteraction. He offers a single most comprehensive scheme through themodern dynamics of changing the fabric of everyday life at the globallevel. Indeed, networks indicate the Information Age and he provide anovel combination of the openness and integration making peopleunderstand how the internet affects human life.
Review of John Stuart Mill`s Works
The seventh chapter of the fourth book, The Principles ofPolitical Economy, by John Stuart Mill titled On the ProbableFuturity of the Labouring Classes, focuses on the theory ofdependence and protection. It features the link between the economyand society progress affairs. The proceeding paragraphs provide asummary of the chapter then states the author’s arguments andevaluates the authors work.
Mill begins chapter seven of the book by noting of the precedingchapters’ principal object of false ideal to the society. Heexplains that productivity increment is dependent on the habits andopinions of the majority class of the labourers. The wealthy peopleshould guide the weak and limit them to children. He continues tostate how the dominant classes indulge in self-importance byjustifying themselves of the necessity to work for profits. Heproceeds to touch on self-dependence, dependence, women in industry,wage-dependency and concludes by explaining the limits of thegovernment.
Mill argues that the laws of production can be ordinary, but humanbeings create and enact the distribution laws. His arguments implythat wealth is a natural finished product of labour, but it is thedecisions and wills of the actual people that determine the wealthdistribution: an intricate part of this order. He urges thatlegislature or human laws must carry the responsibility of the mannerin which the wealth distributes to individuals. He believes that thesociety will continue growing, but these changes restricted to thecapabilities of labour and land.
Mill does an excellent job of defining the productivity conceptsconcerning the dynamic society. The poor need emancipation from theirdependency on the class-structured society that also reflects on theneed to abandon women dependency on men (Mill 3). Social advancesoccur because of an increase in knowledge, transformation to lessoppressive taxes, improved citizens and property protection andincrement in property due to improved business capacities. Forinstance, he agrees with Thomas Malthus that the governing authorityshould learn how to control its food supply if it wants to satisfythe ever-growing demand of the population (Mill 5-6).
This chapter serves as a foundation to expand the philosophical areaof inquiry by discovering the theories of dependence and protectionabout people’s needs and assess. As widely observed in the presentday cooperatives drive the economic productions. Although the chapteris not up to date with effects of technological concepts, it remainsrelevant to emphasise on education, which equates to informationacquisition that allows peephole to interact more.
Application of both Theories to Network Society
Applying both methods discussed in the two articles, and then theconcept of Network Society closely relates to the role ofcommunication technologies in the interpretation of globalisationeffects in the society. According to Castell (693), micro-electronicbased communication and information technologies structure thesociety. Both theories advocate for industrial restructuring to bringabout a new social structure. First, the modern day industries cancollectively increase economic productivity using availableinformation to accommodate more open markets approach. Secondly, thetheory is applicable when the people in the society can freethemselves from freedom-restricting cultural movements (Mill 13).
Productivity as mentioned in Mill’s chapter and information asillustrated in Castell’s work create the prerequisite that canapply to revolutionise the today’s Americans interaction amongsteach other. The cultural or old movements were necessary given thatthey constituted the opposing self-centred human capabilities tofocus more on human rights. Both theories can combine to incorporatepeople and resources available tasks to form a new structure. Theindividual values and freedom because of cultural change then shapethe communication structure connection yielding a network society.Power production and communication structures provide the keyframework in that develop the network society.
Castells, Manuel. "Toward a Sociology of theNetwork Society." ContemporarySociology 29.5 (2000): 693-99. Web.
Mill, John Stuart. "Chapter 7 On the ProbableFuturity of the Laboring Classes." ThePrinciples of Political Economy. NewYork. 1-16. Print.