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Overthe time, massive information and data have been researched andaccumulated with relation to issues of tobacco and health globally.There has been an increased relationship between the consumption ofthe tobacco and its products to the health concerns of people. Thisstems from the clinical conclusions about lung cancer, the firstdisease that was linked to the use of tobacco. About 30 years ago,the United States through the office of health services, reviewedover massive paper researched over the topic of smoking, and it wasrecognized that smoking was a catalyst not only to lung cancer butalso to another host of diseases. Since then, researches wereconducted to substantiate the massive link between tobacco users withthe effect on human health such as cardiovascular cancer. Accordingto Palloni et al (1250), smoking has caused many deaths in comparisonto other diseases. However, with modern technology and medicaladvancement, many discoveries have been identified relating smokingto many other problems as well as ways to curb the menace behindsmoking.
Smokingis regarded is one of the habits that is widely practiced globally.This has, in turn, elevated the tobacco industry as one of theprofit-making business firms. This is despite smoking being regardeda bad habit. Smoking and the use of tobacco related products such ascigar and the smokeless tobacco are attributed to the causing factorbehind numerous diseases and conditions. In addition to causingdiseases, the use of tobacco products also worsens user’s healthconditions. Not only does smoking affect the person directly usingthe product, but also other nearby people through second-handsmoking. In a nutshell, smoking is regarded as the leading causepreventable diseases in the United States with it being blamed to bethe cause of 437,000 deaths per year. Smoking nearly harms almostevery body organ, in addition to numerous diseases and worsens thehealth of both direct smokers and second-hand smokers. According toVuolo et al (375), smoking increases health risks among people. Someof the smoking-related practices include cigarette smoking,secondhand smoking, marijuana, electronic cigarette, smokelesstobacco, and cigars. This paper is an analysis of the adverse effectsof smoking, second-hand smoking and the related health risks itpossesses to direct and passive smokers. Thesis statement smokinghas become a health menace. Smoking in public places should be banneddue to the equally threatening second-hand smoking just like passivesmoking.
HealthIssues/Risks Related To Smoking
Smokingis related to a plethora of health conditions, risks, and diseases.For example, considering the practice of smoking of tobacco, it isharmful to one’s health. According to the US government healthservice department (AmericanLung Association, 2016),there is no healthy way to smoke, as replacing one smoking product toanother doesn’t reduce or avoid the health risks related tosmoking. Smoking is believed to introduce more than 5000 chemicalsinto the human body this is according to the American lungassociation (AmericanLung Association, 2016).A good number of this chemical they are harmful to the human body,with not less than 60 of them, being carcinogenic.
Thehuman body is comprised of numerous integrated body systems. Smokingis believed to have a different and damaging effect to each of thesystems. When smoking is discussed, the most thought of to be damagedby the practice is the respiratory system. One of the bad or damaginghealth-related to the smoking is related to diseases and poor healthwithin the respiratory system. Smoking is directly related to lungproblems. It affects the lungs` ability to filter harmful products.Smoking introduces chemicals which are trapped in the lungs, whichlater increases the risk of respiratory infections. Smoking leads tothe destruction of the air sacs, as well as causing the lungs to beinflated. After smoking for a long time, the smokers suffer fromchronic obstructive pulmonary disease not to mention higher chancesof getting lung cancer. On the other hand, children whose parents aresmokers, also suffers from infections such as wheezing, asthma, andcoughing at a higher rate compared to children whose parent are notsmokers. Other respiratory infections, which come as a result ofsmoking, include bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and emphysema.These infections affect both smokers and passive smokers (Owing,138).Finally, withdrawal from smoking also causes respiratory pain andcongested as the lungs clear out the chemicals and other deposits inthe lungs.
Inaddition to health problems to the respiratory system, thecardiovascular system is another system affected by smoking. Smokingis attributed to damaging of the cardiovascular system. Smokingintroduced nicotine in the blood, which in turn increases bloodsugar. Nicotine causes tightening of blood vessels, and, in turn,reducing the flow of blood, a condition known as peripheral arteryinfection. Smoking also contributes to high blood pressure, exposingthe smoker to a higher risk of blood clots, which in turn may reduceblood flow to the brain causing a stroke. It also causes coronaryheart attack and coronary heart disease (Smokefree,2016).
Next,smoking affects the human CNS (central nervous system). One of thebyproducts of smoking tobacco is nicotine, which causes mood alteringeffects. Once it reaches the brain, nicotine stimulates the brain,this is for a short period and, in turn, the quest for more henceit’s a habit forming trend, ceasing from smoking can cause impairedcognitive functioning. Other infections related to smoking includeskin, hair and nail infections, also known as the integumentarysystem. Some signs of smoking effects include premature aging,discoloring of the skin, wrinkles, yellow staining of the fingers,and teeth browning are some of the effects of smoking. Finally,smoking is attributed to an effect on sexuality and reproductivesystem as well as the digestive stem. Diseases or infections causedby smoking include lung cancer, COPD, heart disease, stroke, asthmareproductive effects in women, low birth weight and premature births,diabetes, blindness and finally numerous types of cancer among otherhealth effects (Smokefree,2016).
Despitenot all people smokes, there is a higher number of smoking infectionsin the society than the number of active smokers. This is in turnattributed to second-hand smoke, which affects women, men andchildren, and the only way to fight second-hand smoking id throughthe elimination of smokers from homes, places of work, and publicplaces. In a simple definition, secondhand smoke is the involuntaryinhalation of smoke from tobacco by one individual from smoke emittedfrom another who is actively smoking. It may also refer to theexhalation of smoke by the smoker (SecondhandSmoke Exposure and Cardiovascular Effects).In other terms, secondhand smoke is regarded passive smoking, orenvironmental smoking the largest number of second-hand smokingexperiences at home and places of work. Just like the health concernsposed to the active smokers, the threat is equally the same tosecondhand smoke (Vuoloet al, 376).Passive smoke is divided into two categories, the mainstream smoke(the smoke exhaled by an active smoker), and sidestream smokereleased from a lighted cigar or open air burning of tobaccoproducts. Sidestream smoke is more concentrated with carcinogeniccompounds compared to mainstream smoke.
Thereare different scenarios that are referred to second-hand smoking. Oneexample of passive smoking is when non-smokers inhale smoke fromburning of tobacco and related tobacco products either burned by aperson or burned in an open air. For example, when destroying tobaccoproducts through burning, effective measures should be taken such asburning away from residential areas so as to save people from beingexposed to polluted air. Secondly, another example of secondhandsmoking is through exposure to the smoke that is exhaled by anindividual who is actively smoking (SecondhandSmoke Exposure and Cardiovascular Effects).When a smoking person takes a puff, and out comes smoke from his/hermouth, the smoke is equally toxic just like direct smoking. With thetobacco smoking know to contain more than 6000 toxic substances and70 carcinogenic substances second hand smoking equally poses a majorhealth hazard to people who are exposed to such smoke (AmericanLung Association, 2016).For in a family setting, families whereby one or both parents aresmokers, their children are exposed to secondhand smoke throughinhaling the polluted air from the smoke of the burning tobacco, aswell as the exhaled air from the active smokers. Despite the tobaccoindustry, arguing against the magnitude of passive smoking being ahealth hazard, the establishment of smoke-free workplaces as well assmoke-free public places and homes helps reduce the number of activesmokers which in turn reduces the second-hand smoking related smokeinfections.
Overthe past 3 years, there has been a decrease in exposure to passivesmoke. This is attributed to the increasing number of states adoptingstrict laws which prohibit indoor smoking, and public places smokingas well. In addition to the adoption of laws, there has been asignificant decline in the number of smokers and smoking rate andfinally, the issue that, smoking in the presence of non-smokers isbecoming less socially acceptable.
HealthIssues Related to Passive Smoking
Passivesmoking relates to different health issues. Secondhand smoke has overtime become a serious health hazard with more than 40000 deaths peryear attributed to secondhand smoke. Passive smoke can, in turn,worsen or cause an increased range of damaging health effects topeople of all ages, children, and adults. Some infections relate tosecondhand smoke include asthma, lung cancer, respiratory infectionsamong others. According to findings published by the American LungAssociation, “nonsmokers who breathe in SHS take in nicotine andtoxic chemicals the same way smokers do” (Palloni1248).
Passivesmoke causes cancer, even in people who have never smoked. Inaddition to lung cancer, passive smoke also causes other cancers suchas brain, bladder, larynx, pharynx, bread among others. To thechildren, passive smoke causes weak health among them. For example,they tend to fall sick more often, increased lung infections, earinfections, develop asthma attacks. Other diseases contributed bypassive smoke include cardiovascular disease, sudden infant syndrome,affects pregnant women and the unborn child. In addition to causinginfections and diseases, passive smoke increases the risk ofsuffering from stroke, heart disease, sinus cancer, breathingproblems, etc (Palloni1250).In summary, the infections and health issues related to passive smokeare more like the same problems and health issues that come withactive smoke. This is due to the fact that, the mainstream and‘sidestream smoke’ andequalities carries, the more than 6000harmful substances to non-smokers, and the damage is the same.
LawsRelated To Smoking
Increasingthe health concerns related to smoking has led to the establishmentof laws to govern the use and production of tobacco and itsbyproducts as well as marijuana. The implantation of tobacco laws andregulations is focused on the reduction of the diseases and deathsrelated to the smoking practices in the society. With the alarmingnumber of deaths related to smoking, the enactment of policies andlaws governing the production and use of the substances has in turnbeen inevitable. In summary, tobacco control laws together with othergovernment policies look forward to prevent children and youth fromstarting to smoke, help smokers quit the practice, and also requirethe adverse effects which are as a result of smoking (Owing,152).
Thedevelopment of smoke controlling laws first came in 1964 this isover there a report indicating smoking as a catalyst that resulted inincreased mortality. The report was given with regard to smoking andhealth. In 1965, Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act wereestablished. The act required the tobacco product manufacturers togive a health warning on their product packaging, as well asreporting by health organizations on the consequences of smoking.Despite the enactment of the law, there were continued health issuesrelated to smoking. In 1970, the Public health cigarette smoking Actwas enacted. This focused on the ban on tobacco advertisements on TVsand radio. The enactment of the laws continued to be implemented andin 1984 smoking education act was enacted which focused on widespreadeducation to the people on the issues related to smoking. The morelaw continued to be formed with the main focus being to reduce orcontrol the use of tobacco and other smokers among people (Danny,2015).
Otherlaws to have been enacted include Wendell H. Ford aviationinvestment and reform Act, and also the 1996 Regulations Restrictingthe Sale and Distribution of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco toProtect Children and Adolescents which focused on controlling theuse of tobacco among people, adolescents and the children, theaviation. Not only has the law focused on controlling the productionand use of tobacco products among people, but also in the aviationindustry (Jiang,10).This is whereby the law focused on prohibiting the use of smoke whenon short distance flights.
Inaddition, to laws concerned with production other laws concerningtobacco marketing were also enacted. With a focus on tobaccomarketing, there are different federal laws, regulations and legalagreement that focus on governing the advertising/marketing of thetobacco product (Jiang,15).For example, the master settlement Agreement, family smokingprevention act, finally, the states have equally joined the fightagainst the practice of smoking. Some of the state initiativesinclude the establishment of smoking zones while at the same timeenacting smoke-free air laws. This is to ensure smokers do not do itin public places such as school, hotel or places of work. Moremeasures have been implemented to make tobacco more expensive andless accessible to people (Vuoloet al, 378).Even today, the global health organizations continue to do researchon the negative impact of smoking. This has, in turn, continued tocontribute to the establishment of laws and policies to curb thepractice of smoking in the society. World health organizations havebeen on the forefront in the fight against smoking as well aseducating the public on the adverse effects of smoking.
Smokinghas become one of the slowest killing drugs in the society today withincreased vices connected to the practice. It’s clear that smokingaffects each and every human body system. It is connected with lungcancer, a menace that has caused a lot of suffering among people inaddition to other cancers. Not only does it cause cancer, but alsocatalyzes other health issues. Active smoking is known to adverselyaffect the human health with numerous risks facing the smokers. Onthe other hand, secondhand smoking is equally life threatening toaffected people just like the case of active smoking. Since theidentification of smoke as a health hazard to the human health, lawshave been enacted to control and inhibit the production and usetobacco products and other smoking substances.
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