Stem Cell Researches

StemCell ResearchesNameStudent Nameof InstitutionStemCell Researches

Stemcells are types of cells that have the capacity to grow intodifferent kinds of cells within the body. The development of thecells takes place in the early stages of growth of the cells. Thestem cells provide an internal repair mechanism of the body tissues,and they perform that through great division and rejuvenation of thetissue cells(Hervey and Hari 23).That phenomenon is determined by the fact that if the person or theanimal is dead or alive as the process cannot take place within deadbodies. When the stem cells undergo division, the emerging cell caneither maintain the status quo or remain as stem cells or couldtransform into a different type that has an entirely differentfunction. The cells could be converted into red blood cells or musclecells (Maclachlan,20)

Stemcells are distinct with very vital characteristics. Unlike othercells they are not specialized which enables them to rejuvenatethrough the process of cell division. They also have the ability toremain dormant for extended periods without any damages. The stemcells could be converted into tissues or into specialized cells toperform specific functions within the different organs of the body orin the body tissues(Humber and Robert, 48).This ability implies that the stem cells are also capable ofacquiring special features after the conversion, just like otherspecialized tissue cells. In the bone marrow, for example, the stemcells divide themselves to renew the damaged cells and tissues. Inthe heart, however, the stem cells can only divide if subjected torange of conditions

Inthe past, researches focused on only two types of stem cells from thehumans and animals mainly the embryonic stem cells and somatic stemcells which are non-embryonic. Researchers had found out ways todevelop embryonic stem cells in the laboratory. This was done byextracting the cells from the human embryos. Such types of cells areknown as human embryonic stem cells. The embryos that were utilizedin the researches were developed for reproductive reasons andfollowed in-vitro fertilization process.

Theywould later be donated for research after accomplishing thatfunction, of course with permission from the donor. A breakthroughwas achieved in 2006 when researchers identified factors that wouldpermit specialized adult cells to be subjected to geneticreorganization to achieve stem cell status(Devaney,23).The resulting cell is referred to as induced pluripotent stem cells.

Thereare several reasons why the stem cells are considered important toall the living organisms. For example in the early days of theembryonic development, the inner cells lead to the formation of thewhole body structure of the organism(Maclachlan,19)..The stem cells give rise to all the specialized cells and the bodyorgans, for example, the heart, skin, lungs, sperms, eggs among otherbodily tissues. In adulthood, the stem cells and the tissues in thebone marrow produce alternatives for cells that have crashed orinjured due to diseases and therefore stabilizing the number of thecells

Dueto the ability of the stem cells to rejuvenate, stem cells provide anew capacity in the treatment of diseases(Maclachlan,29).The cells have been employed in the treatment of diseases. Examplesof such conditions are the heart diseases and diabetes. A lot ofresearch is going on to find out if the stem cells could be used inthe treatment of diseases that involve cell treatment popularly knownas cell-based therapies.

Researchesin stem cells have significantly empowered the scientists. Theresearchers have been able to understand the crucial features of thestem cells and what differentiates them from the specialized cells.Experts in the medical field have made use of the stem cells intesting of new medicines and also in development of study models tounderstand causes of defects in birth.

Studiesare ongoing to increase the knowledge in stem cells to necessitatethe understanding of how organisms grow from single cells and how newcells replace destroyed ones in both the humans and the animals. Theresearch in stem cells has been considered to be one of the excitingareas of modern biology.

Theopponents of embryonic stem studies have compared the damaging ofembryos to performing abortions which is actually murder. They havetherefore opposed the continuation of the research claiming that anyscientific experimentations that cause loss of lives is unacceptablein this era and age(Maclachlan, 30).Their argument is based on the fact that the embryo has thecapability to develop into full humans. They have based theirarguments on ethical and moral rationalizations.

Inthe usage of stem cells and destruction of the embryo it is seen asif the researchers have no respect for human life and that people areconsidered and treated as objects. The controversy is common amongthe religious groups(&quotTheSixth Annual Translational Stem Cell Research Conference of the NewYork Stem Cell Foundation.&quot1255).It is also argued that adult stem cells are at the moment used intreatments and therefore there is no reason to explore the embryonicstem cell as is the case in many research laboratories around theworld

Onthe other hand, the proponents of the of the embryo stem cell arguethat an embryo is not a human being. The proponents claim that thesocieties experience a lot of diseases which cost them a lot in termsof money and suffering and therefore, the ethical aspects of thereasoning are not valid. They hence recommend for the continuation ofthe researches so that more cures could be found.

Ithas also been argued that the embryos are the remnants of in-vitrofertilization and would have been destroyed anyway and it istherefore correct to put them into good use. This line of reasoningtherefore supports the continuation of researches in stem cells. Thereasoning is comparable to hat that advocates for the legally abortedembryos to be used in research in an endeavor to promote the humanlife.

Inconclusion, if the embryos are not used in research, scientists havethe alternative to focus on the use of the adult stem cells as theyare extracted from adult tissues (Devaney 24). The problem is thatthe adult stem cells have lower therapeutic potential because theadult stem cells cannot undergo many types of cells division as theembryonic stem cells. There is also the likelihood that the adultstem cells have grown genetic defects and they don’t multiplyeffectively.

AnnotatedBibliography

&quotTheSixth Annual Translational Stem Cell Research Conference of the NewYork Stem Cell Foundation.&quot Annals of the New York Academy ofSciences. 1255 (2012). Print.

Theconference addressed the progress that were being made in the stemcell research.It was also making an appeal to the donor community toprovide funds so the research was not slowed down.

Hervey,Tamara K, and Hari Black. &quotThe European Union and the Governanceof Stem Cell Research.&quot Maastricht Journal of European andComparative Law. 12.1 (2005): 11-48. Print.

Hervey,Tamara K, and Hari Black discuss the lawas that the europen uninionhas put in place to guide the stem cell research.

Humber,James M, and Robert F. Almeder. Stem Cell Research. Totowa,N.J: Humana Press, 2004. Print.

Humber,James M, and Robert F. Almeder,discuss the stm cell research on itsentirety with special emphasis on the controvies that have plaguedthe research.

Devaney,Sarah. &quotAchieving Consensus on International Ethical Oversightof Stem Cell Research.&quot Asian Journal of Wto &ampInternational Health Law and Policy. 2.2 (2007). Print.

Devaney,Sarah,evaluates the ethical aspect of stem cell research in asia.

Maclachlan,Malcolm. &quotStem Cell`s Shell Game?: Critics Question Big NumbersCited by Prop. 71 Campaign Strategists.&quot Capitol Weekly.17.31 (2005). Print.

Maclachlan,Malcolm,ASSESSES the critisms leveled at the stem cell research aandtheir implications to the effort.

Bibliography

&quotTheSixth Annual Translational Stem Cell Research Conference of the NewYork Stem Cell Foundation.&quot Annals of the New York Academy ofSciences. 1255 (2012). Print.

Hervey,Tamara K, and Hari Black. &quotThe European Union and the Governanceof Stem Cell Research.&quot Maastricht Journal of European andComparative Law. 12.1 (2005): 11-48. Print.

Humber,James M, and Robert F. Almeder. Stem Cell Research. Totowa,N.J: Humana Press, 2004. Print.

Devaney,Sarah. &quotAchieving Consensus on International Ethical Oversightof Stem Cell Research.&quot Asian Journal of Wto &ampInternational Health Law and Policy. 2.2 (2007). Print.

Maclachlan,Malcolm. &quotStem Cell`s Shell Game?: Critics Question Big NumbersCited by Prop. 71 Campaign Strategists.&quot Capitol Weekly.17.31 (2005). Print.