TheRing of Gyges tale
TheRing of Gyeges commences with a challenge that Glaucon wants theSocrates to defend just life he target being that the defense shouldshow that justice is inborn or is intrinsic and is more preferablecompared to injustice. To create an argument he creates a defense forinjustice. In his defense for injustice, he posits that people findmore attractive to inflict wrong doings to the others but if rolesare switched and they are on the receiving they find it undesirable.He purports that if people are put on both ends of the equation thatis on the giving and receiving of injustice, the find that the painof being a victim outweighs the benefits of being a victimizer.1Therefore, to avoid being on the receiving end or being victimizedhumans prefer coming together to forge agreements that they refer tojustice. He also explains that power would make the most just man tobe unjust. For people who are viewed to be just should be tested ifthey are just because of reputation or because they are just people.
Whatdoes Glaucon think the meaning or moral of the ring if Gyges storyis?
Themoral of the story is that power would or will cause any man even thejust man to become unjust, the honest to become dishonest andmotivated by their selfish desire. He further holds it that a personwho would have had the ring but never used it unjustly would bepraised to his face. Nonetheless, people would perceive him as a bigfool behind his back. As seen in the story, the people would befearful to call him a fool in public for fear of retribution even thethough the ring bearer never used the ring badly or selfishly. Thisshows the intrinsic nature of men being unjust it also presents thecurrent state of the society and the flawed nature of human moralphilosophy. In the contemporary society, ethical questions have beenconfused with semantic urgings and excuses. He therefore proceeds toposit that justice does come form or is not derived from this socialconstruct, that the man who man who abused power of the ring of Gygeshasenslaved himself to his appetite for power and injustice while theman who chose not use it selfishly remains rationally in control ofhis conduct and himself and is therefore happy.
3explain Socrates response to the Ring of Gyges refer to this adSocratic Happiness
Inaccordancewith Socrates people with self-knowledge are in a position to findtrue happiness. He further posited that happiness flows form theliving a life that is right for your soul the deepest good of thesoul and not from physical or external conditions like wealth, poweror bodily pleasures. In his response to happiness he also explainsthat to find true happiness one should first know what’s good theirsoul. What makes their soul feel better. If one does not find outwhat makes their soul feel better or happy then there are highchances that they may be misled into pursuing happiness based on whatis convectional or what many people are doing like wealth, money andeducation. In such an occurrence one is prone to hit a dead end whenit comes to their pursuit for happiness. He also explains that whenone finds out what makes them happy then they are bound to pursuehappiness naturally without struggling. To find one’s happinessthey need know their soul and what makes it happy first.
4.Manythink Haidts psychological studies of happiness (2007) supportSocrates response to the Ring of Gyges, Socratic Happiness. Present 2different ideas or stories from the Haidt handout and explain howthey can be seen to support Socratic Happiness
Inhis first story or illustration, Haidts of someone who had won alottery $20 million and someone who had been recently paralyzed. Heexplains that there would be a lot of excitement on the part of thepoor man who had won the lottery after winning the lottery. Thatwould be because of the recent lifestyle change that comes withriches. Her night purchase what he always desired which in a waywould excite him. On the other hand the person who was also recentlyparalyzed will be stressed and depressed at first due to the changein lifestyle and even at times a feeling of being useless.Nonetheless, Haidts holds it that after a year, both people will havethe same level of happiness. That is because they will have bothreturned to their level of happiness. The riches will be now part ofthe lottery winner while the paralyzed man will now be renewed insome way he will also have nowhere else to go than up. The paralysiswill be part of the second man. Therefore their happiness will be onits base. By this Illustration he shows that material things wouldonly bring temporary happiness. Since the poor manna only gets happyfor some time then everything becomes normal. While on the other sidethe paralyzed man will also be sad for some time but will later behappy in accepting himself and would now be happy from deep withinform the new challenges that he will make for himself. This is alsowitnessed in the story of Bob who is 35 single and earns well andMary who is old and on dialysis for kidney problems and also earnslesser money compared to Bob yet Mary was happier than Bob. Herehappiness was in her good marriage at least when she woke she hadsomeone on her side. Unlike Bob who would date attractive women yethe was not happy. This illustrates that happiness is not pegged onmaterial possessions like wealth rather it is in making the soulhappy. If material possession such as wealth and money were the asource of real happiness then in this case Bob would have beenhappier than Mary.
5Re-tell Arsop fable, the fox and the grapes what is the moral of thefable? (Refer this as Sour Grapes Rationalizing
Thestory is about a fox that was strolling in an orchard came across abunch of grapes that were ripening on a tree over a lofty branch. The fox was excited since it was very thirsty. He drew back a fewpaces and took a run and jumped toward the grapes but missed them. Hewent back a few paces again and came running with more energy thistime he jumped but missed. He a few paces back again and jumped withall his might but the grapes were still too high. On realizing thathe could not reach the grapes the fox dismissed the grapes as verysour as he went his way. The rationalization of the story is howpeople use urgings that are weak and somewhat plausible to justifytheir failure for achieving tasks or things that are difficult toaccept. This is donr tot achieve a scenario where the person whofails sin the task to look somehow better than they actually are. Ina nutshell, the rationale is many at times used to justify failure bymaking the whole scenario look bad and actually blame it for thefailure. Therefore, if the person achieved what they wanted then thegrapes would have not been sour. It is the failure that makes thegrapes ‘sour’.
6Present 2 ideas or dirties from Haybtons psychological studies ofhappiness (2013) that show Sour Grapes Rationalizing is real Thengive one example from your own life when you used Sour GrapesRationalizing
Asseen in the sour grapes story the fox first tried to get the grapesbut after trying for a few times , the fox was unable. After he wasunable he said that the grapes were probably sour and that is why hedid not get them. In real life this also happens to people. During mychildhood days I once borrowed a bicycle from my fellow childrenwhile we were playing. After many minutes of persuading the boy herefused to lend me the bike saying that his parents were against thatI tried showing him the small distance I would cycle but still hecould not allow me. Feeling bad is aid that his bike was actually badand old.
7How could Haybron argue that Socratic Happiness is itself an instanceof Sour Grapes Rationalizing ?
Haybroncould argue that people find happiness after knowing their soulbasically, because they lacked to achieve what they wanted in life.Therefore, after failing to achieve that, then they would look forhappiness within themselves happiness that would be within theirreach. He could therefore posit that people who propose that wealthand money bring temporary happiness could be a good instance of thesour grapes. Their failure to attain the wealth or the money thenmakes those things sources of temporary happiness otherwise if theyachieved them then they would be seen as what the soul wants to behappy. In my view Socratic happiness as an instance of sour grapes isnot correct.
MichaellaBossiere, 2009,’Summary of Plato’s Ring of Gyges’retrieved from <https://aphilosopher.wordpress.com/2009/12/29/summary-of-platos-ring-of-gyges/> 1 Michael laBossiere, 2009,’ Summary of Plato’s Ring of Gyges’ retrieved from < https://aphilosopher.wordpress.com/2009/12/29/summary-of-platos-ring-of-gyges/>