Student`s Name

DifferentDiet Habits in the Different U.S States

Differentstates have different dietary habits depending on where the land islocated and the most produced food in the country. During the springbreak, I went to the various states in the United States. It came tomy notice that people have different dietary habit in various states.The dietary habits are not majorly the favorites or the only meals,but rather the staple meals and diet trends within the city. Thepaper will discuss different diet patterns in different states in theUnited States.

Inthe state of Montana, people often consume the red meat more thananywhere else in the state (Oliver 127). Averagely, most familiesconsume the steaks and also the burgers more than half number of daysin a week. At a close look, the state focuses most on ranching.Hence, the red meat is available all over and at an affordable price.According to Oliver (127), Maine people consume the least red meatthat ranges to once in a week. At a close look, the state consumeslobster at a high rate and also the consumption of the fruit juice isfrequent. In the state, there is access for the lobster as well asthe fresh fruit and the weather also allows the consumption of thejuice. However, majorly the seafood and lobsters make the main mealsin most families (Oliver127).

Hawaiianshave a great combination of diets due to their history (Ross 19). Inthe beginning, they had many visitors interested in their fertilelands as well as the people who went for work who introduced theirdiets to the country (Oliver 127). However, most people consume thevegetables more than three days in a week. The trend is also the sameon the grain foods such as rice (Mushak129).The country also consumes a lot of fruits. At a close look, thecountry has a history of producing the vegetables, grains and fruitslocally (Ross 19).

Thefeeding of the vegetables is also common in California though it isleast among the Nebraskans (Ross 19). It is critical to note that theCalifornians prefer salads and I saw that they really make some ofthe best salads I have ever tasted. According to Ross (19), theCalifornian mild Mediterranean climate favors production of freshvegetables, fresh fruits, and fresh meat. Therefore, the meals aredetermined by the farmer`s market though in the coastal region seafoods are common. In the US, the state is known for producing mostfruits and vegetables and exporting them to other countries (Mushak129).

Theproximity to New Jersey, New York, and Philadelphia determines asubstantial influence of diets. The states consume much of fast foodsthat range from the fries, the hot dogs, pork rolls and pizza amongothers (Morales 2). The states have fewer lands for the production offresh foods, hence most depend on the imported food stuff to makefoods. Apart from the availability of the land, the soil type doesnot favor vegetable production, especially in New York. InPhiladelphia, cheese steak is most consumed and iconic (Nestle 358).However, the three states have mixed dietary habits due to mixedethnicities that influenced a wide range of diets available.

Onthe snacks, there are different roadside snacks preferred in variousstates. The Alabama do boiled peanuts made of fresh peanuts that areboiled and salted (Morales 2). Alaska`s meal mostly found in thefinest restaurants is the caribou steak that was initially thetraditional Eskimo staple food(Mushak 129).In the Southwest, Arizona, fry bread has been common in many familiesfor the last more than 150 years (Ross 19). It is consumed withhoney, ground beef, beans, and cheese among others. Arkansas is knownfor fruits, and the pink tomatoes are grown in the state for years(Morales 2). Colorado has wild waters of the Rocky Mountains thatexplain the availability of trout (Mushak129).The silvery trout has tender flesh and is freshly fished and locallyprepared.

Connecticutborrows a lot from Italians. Hence, the adoption of famed Pizza is aculture borrowed from the Italian immigrants in the late 19th century(Nestle 358). Scrapple in Delaware is commonly made of pork trimmingscombined with flour or cornmeal forming a loaf that is fried. SinceFlorida produces most citrus products, they produce the tastiest keylime pie. According to Nestle (358), the huckleberry growing wild inthe Northwest and Rocky Mountains is highly consumed in pies inIdaho. Chicago people consume a lot of hot dogs, hence the style inIllinois. Hoosier state expresses their love for the pork in theproduction of the best pork tenderloin sandwich.

Inconclusion, most states opt for the readily available food stuff asthe staple meals. The leading partners of the states determine thediets they adopt. However, other states become famous for theirbest-made foods like Iowa is best known for their loose meatsandwich. Breadbasket state of Kansas produces popcorn hence muchconsumed in the state (Ross 19). The Kentucky fried chicken isfamously known as KFC was founded in the eastern region of the state(Morales 2). Chesapeake Bay contains many blue crabs hence Marylandbest makes crabmeat and also the crab cakes (Nestle 358). Most dietsare not particularly balanced diets, though they are available andlocally produced.

of the Sources

Oliver,Sandra L. Foodin Colonial and Federal America.Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2005. Print.

SandraLouise Oliver wrote the book. Sandra tells how Europeans forged asociety and culture that was profoundly influenced by Indians andAfrican slaves. The Americans developed regional food habits withwhat they brought with them, the food they found there, and thetraded stuff around the globe. The book narrated the history from1567 when the Spanish settled in Florida, to 1825 when wheat from theWest was made available, through the Erie Canal, to the East. Manychapters cover L Foodstuffs, Food Preparation, Eating Habits, andConcepts of Diet and Nutrition and the difference in diet habitsacross states. The author gives a detailed account of food gathered,grown, and prepared in the early period of European settlement inAmerica.

Ross,Carolyn C. TheBinge Eating &amp Compulsive Overeating Workbook: An IntegratedApproach to Overcoming Disordered Eating.Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, 2009. Print

CarolynCocker Rose gives a comprehensive report on people with binge eatingdisorder and other overeating disorders. In her interest to makereaders learn to use proven complementary and alternative medicinetherapies that help in developing a healthy relationship with foodand eating, she covers a broad range of foods commonly consumed invarious states. The content though in the form of criticismhighlights everyday diet habits in states that may lead to a binge.She also explains the reason as to why most feeds are consumed, andit narrows down to the availability of the food.

Nestle,Marion. FoodPolitics on How the Food Industry Influences Nutrition and Health.Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013. Print.

MarionNestle, the author of the book, explains how powerful, intrusive,influential, and invasive big industry is and how it is important toprevent it from influencing individual nutrition and dietary habits.The book underlies politics concerning food in America and thechoices that threaten health. As a result, Marion gives samples ofthe states that produce various foods, their consumption, andinfluence to other countries. Nestle reveals how the corporatecontrol of the nation`s food system has limited people`s choices andthreatens health.

Mushak,Paul.&nbspAnEnvironmentalLead and Human Health Science, Risk Assessment and Regulation.Pergamon, 2010. Print.

Thebook gives detailed arguments on the health science and the humanhealth risk. The health risks vary from the environmental factors tothe dietary factors of the individuals. The lead factors access howrisks are exposed to the environment and get to the humans henceaffecting their health. The foods consumed carry a lot of risksdepending on the environment of production. The book covers toxicresponses to lead in sensitive populations among them being thedietary factor. In the last section of the book, Paul deals with pastand present regulatory efforts to control lead releases into thehuman environment. On the process he covers various types of dietsthat carry the lead risks depending on the type of the environment.Since the environment in question is the United States, the bookbecomes a good source of reference on the types of diets habits insome states.

Morales,Cristina. Relationshipbetween dietary patterns and the body mass index in Hispanic childrenfrom ages 4–19 years of age.(January 1, 2009).&nbspM.P.H.University of Texas, Health Science Center at Houston, School ofPublic Health.&nbspTexas:ProQuest,2009, Print

Thedissertation paper deals with how diets have led to massive obesityin the United States. United States being the leading in the obesitymatters, Moralesventures to cover the various dietary habits among Americans. Sheclaims that the childhood over weight crops up also in adulthood andthat there is need to check it to enhance good health. On the processshe highlights some of the diets habits adopted in the United Statesmaking the paper relevant reference for the task. The authorparticularly covers different meal patterns leading to obesity inchildren.&nbspShealso relates thedaily proportions of energy consumed and energy derived from fatacross meals like breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack. As a result,the examples on various meals show the most common meals acrossvarious states in the United States and the reason as to why they aremost available in the region.

Student`s Name

Wilfred Owen and Vera Brittain are an artist that have writtendifferent poems. These two author’s works indicate significantsimilarities at the same time differences. The similarities and thedifferences are due to the differences in the themes as well asstylistic devices used by the authors in different pieces of work. InOwen’s ‘Disabled’ and Vera Brittain’s ‘Demobilized’, thetwo authors have shown substantial similarities and differences intheir pieces of work.

Common themes and styles are noticed through the analysis of Owen’s‘Disabled’ and Vera Brittain’s ‘Demobilized.` The poems ofboth of the authors talk about soldiers and how their lives have beensignificantly affected by their involvement in the war (Borsay 501).The Title of Brittain’s poem, ‘Demoralized’ indicates the cryof the disabled soldiers of the war and how they feel towards thesociety who stayed behind when they went to war. The Title of Owen’spoem, ‘Disabled’ indicates how the soldiers who were physicallyaffected by the war suffer and feel frustrated with their return tothe society. The soldiers feel left behind by the society who do notappreciate their hard work and efforts as heroes.

The language used in ‘Disabled’ and ‘Demobilized’ are veryuseful as there a lot of emotions towards the main characters in thepoems. In the Disabled, a lot of emotions have been used to portraythe feelings and the experiences of the young soldiers who lost bothhis feet and one arm during the First World War. The first line ofthe poems says ‘He sat in a wheeled chair, waiting for dark.` Thefirst line signifies to the reader how isolated the young soldier is.The isolation has additionally left the soldier hopeless in hiscurrent world. In the Demobilized, emotions have been used towardsthe narrator of the story to express the wasted four years. The poemssay ‘And no-one talked heroics now’ indicating how the voice inthe poem felt isolated by the society who paid no attention to theirfour-year sacrifice.

The two authors have both used a designated type of language to passtheir anger and frustrations across to the readers of the pieces ofwork (Borsay 509). In the Disabled, the poem appears to be compellingand persuasive as hash word has been used for the emphasis on thepoem’s meaning and significance within the society. The author hasused the harsh word to express how bitter the soldiers is with hiscurrent life and how hopeless he feels towards life. The soldierremembers of the interesting life he led before losing his legs andone arm. The soldier regrets having lost his leg as he can no longerenjoy the life that was brought with the night. The soldier expresseshis pain as he acknowledges the possibility of never again enjoyingholding a woman as women now hold him out of pity. In theDemobilized, harsh words have been used to emphasize the anger of thenarrator towards the society. The narrator feels left behind by thesociety yet the society does not notice the fact that those whoremained progressed with their lives. The society fails to appreciatethe work of the narrator but instead views the four-year sacrifice asbeing a fool.

There are differences that are noticeable in Owen’s ‘Disabled’and Vera Brittain’s ‘Demobilized’ (Borsay 503). In Owen’sDisabled, the author uses third voice narrator to tell the story andthe frustrations that the young soldiers undergo through after thewar. The use of the third voice narration has been successfully usedto indicate the changes that have occurred in the life of the youngsoldier. On the other hand, in Vera’s Demobilized, first voicenarration has been used to express the experiences and thefrustrations of the narrator. The use of the first voice narrationprovides the reader with the personal feeling of the victim in thepoem.

The use of the direct speech is another concept that has indicatedthe difference in the stylistic devices used by the Owen andBrittain. Brittain has used a lot of direct statements in her poem.Owen, on the other hand, has entirely used reported statementsthroughout his poem. Brittain has therefore been successfullyportrayed the unfairness of the society through the use of sarcasm inher poem. The use of direct speech has rendered the use of sarcasmuseful. Owen has used direct speech to be successful in the use oflow voice in the delivery of the intended information.

Brittain has used free versus in the lines in her poem ‘Demobilized’with the use of assonance in some instances in the poem to helpcreate the intended impression on the readers of the poem. ‘Theyhad achieved, and men retrieved their names’ has been used toexpress how left behind the narrator felt. Contrary to Brittain, Owenhas not sued empty lines in his poem as rhymes are evident throughoutthe poem. Leg – Peg, Meg – beg, high- why and kilts – jilts arerhymes that are evident within the first stanza. Finally, Owen hasused vivid imagery all through his poem while Brittain’s poem is afreestyle poem. A reader can visualize how the young soldier’s lifehas drastically changed after the war all through the poem.

In conclusion, the two authors have all managed to depict the societyas unfair to their heroes who fought for them during the world war.The society fails to understand the loss that the soldiers havesuffered from but instead tends to control the troops into thinkingand doing the society’s will. Therefore, in spite of thedifferences and commonalities, Owen’s ‘Disabled’ and VeraBrittain’s ‘Demobilized ‘has effectively delivered the intendedmessage.

Work Cited

Borsay, Anne. &quotDisability In British Poetry Of The First WorldWar&quot. Disability &amp Society 30.4 (2015): 499-512. Web.19 Mar. 2016.

Student`s Name

PlayArea Observation


11:20-Onechild was picked from a group of children on the mall’s playgroundwho was to tag the rest.

11:22-Afterthe appointment, the other kids made efforts to run away from him sothat they would not get tagged.

11:24-Theboy tagged one girl whom she put an eye on so that no one would cometo unfreeze her.

11:26-Withan eye on her, he chased and also tagged one boy as he could not runfaster than him. Due to his swiftness, he also got to tag anothergirl in the team.

11:27-Aswifter boy, however, came to their rescue but only unfroze the boyand one girl who ran away.

11:27-Thecycle begun again and from the look on his face the boy tagging hisfriends got disappointed from the loss.

11:30-Theyplayed the second round, but the tagged girl still stood to wait forher unfreezing. Unfortunately, the boy who had been frozen in thefirst round was again tagged hence got charged with to tagging theother team members.

Generalnote-taking11:30-11:50-Theshopping mall environment is congested with similar store brands withstrong promotional campaigns. The playground with the kids playinghas recreational equipment like merry-go-rounds, see-saw, jungle gym,playhouses, and mazes. There are many shoppers within the mall forleisure and relaxation in the restaurants. The grass, trees, flowers,and the water fountains are very appealing to the eye. Theenvironment is calm with an air of relaxation.

11:50-12:10-Thereare various interactions in the mall as many suburban kids stream into meet and make new friends. They play video games, wonder indifferent shops, and show off their makeup and hairstyles. Familiesand friends meet with each other to have a chat and break from theirmonotonous lives. The interaction enables the children to meet theirfriends and cousins hence makes them happier.


PlayArea Observation

Childrenin the United States need to play for them to grow well. They shouldbe given chances to interact with their friends in serene playgroundswhere they can play uninterrupted. Playing should help children havefun and not merely to win. From my observation of the childrenplaying at the shopping mall, it is evident that children likeplaying with their friends and can easily interact with their agemates. A healthy environment enhances the ability of children tointeract and play together.

of observations

Theobservation takes place in a shopping mall where children have beenbrought to play by their parents in the playground section. There areboth boys and girls in the setting. They are aged between five to tenyears and are happy to play with their friends. The generalenvironment they play from is busy with many businesses taking place.However, the playground where the children are playing is cool andmore relaxed. Grasses, water fountains, and beautiful flowerssurround the setting which makes it more appealing. There isequipment like the seesaw and merry-go-rounds. The children interactfrom the time they get to choose the one to tag them and when theystarted to play. They also help unfreeze the tagged teammates, finishthe first round of the game and embark on the second one. All this isdone by interacting with each other.

Aconcept learnt from class is that children in the five to ten yearsage bracket have a liking for movements. They like testing theirphysical limits hence develop more complex moving skills like runningin a zig-zag manner. In the observation, children move in a way tochallenge the one charged with tagging them. They maneuver their wayand get away without being tagged. It, therefore, implies that thesechildren in the event of playing with their friends get to grow as isrequired for their developmental stage.

Analysisof observation with class discussions

Youngchildren always process information concerning the world. It isachieved by playing and interacting with others as seen in theobservation where the children play with their friends tag andfreeze. Such experiences help develop their understanding abilitiesin languages, science, math, and art which are part of theircognitive development(Lippman 76). Social developmententails the capacity to communicate, make friends, and shareespecially in the first years of their lives. The observation helpsthe children develop the ability to communicate on how to conduct thegame and its rules. They also develop socially because they can makenew friends and catch up with the old ones.

Emotionaldevelopment for positive self-confidence and esteem does start in achild’s early life. It is developed when children get the abilityto express and manage their emotions like sadness, anger, fear, andhappiness(Lippman 78). Through thisobservation, the children can express happiness when theysuccessfully unfreeze their friends. The child charged with taggingthe others became sad and angered when the tagged friend is unfrozen.

Inconclusion, the play area observation has helped identify practicallythe need for playing. It enables the parent to identify if theirchild is doing what is required of their age groups. They need toplay so that they can grow and develop through the variousinteractions with age mates. Playing helps a child developphysically, cognitively, socially, and emotionally hence become thedesired mature person in society.


Lippman,Laura.&nbspFlourishingChildren.2013. Print.

Student`s Name

ProfessionalPortfolio Reflection on Child Development and Learning

Childdevelopment is highly determined by infant growth that varies fromthe environment that a child grows to the genetic relations of thechild. An individual who enrolls in a quality childhood educationprogram has more benefits compared to those who enroll in alow-quality education program. Those from high-quality programgraduate from high school earn more, own homes and also have longermarriages (Martin and Richard 31). They also require less specialattention they are less likely to repeat grades as well as breakingthe law. The essay will give my professional reflection and portfolioof my philosophy about early childhood education.

Thetheory of child development (NAEYC) refers to how scientistsand philosophers came up with a way of explaining their observationof the child development. In my view, it explains the relationshipbetween the child’s environment and the people the child interactswith and how they determine a child’s personality (Cowdery andAllen 15). From my experience with children, I think the way theadult handles the child determines which trait the child picks. Everyadult has a great role to play in the child`s development andlearning. The theories help people know how to appropriately handlechildren to enhance good values.

Frommy the experience of the way I was brought up, I assert that apartfrom direct teaching in the classroom by teachers adults have theresponsibility of exposing children to the appropriate environmentand behavior. The environment makes the child acquire positiveexposure, hence enhancing a good personality (Martin and Richard 31).The good behavior of an adult makes the child with the blank slate tolearn good morals and values accepted in the society. Therefore, mygoal as a professional is to help these kids become responsiblepeople in their adulthood considering that their exposure as a childdetermined individual`s adulthood personality.

Developmentallyappropriate practice (DAP) as an approach refers to teaching rootedin effective early education regarding research on the child`sdevelopment and learning (Gestwickior 24). As a professional ateacher, I should help children deal with the challenges they face asa group and as individuals. DAP considers knowing about childdevelopment and learning, knowing what is individually correct andknowing what is culturally moral. The knowledge helps the children todevelop their moral values in their daily interaction with theirpeers and the elders in the society.

Classroommanagement/guidance (NAEYC4b) refersto how a teacher is expected to control and handle the classroom torealize maximum positive results.Within the classroom, the teacher is expected to have classroomcontrol. In my perspective, that means they are in a capacity toenhance and implement rules. The teacher should expose students topredictable schedules that make them feel more secure as it affectstheir cognitive development (Goffin 34). That way, the learnersdevelop self-confidence as they are not afraid of making errors. Therules are supposed to be strategic and reviewed on a daily basissince children at this age are subject to forgetting. The teacher canpin them on the walls with informative pictures to enhancecomprehension. The pictures will make the learners connect theinformative rules with the actions required.

Diversityand Inclusion of children with special needs are essential inpromoting education for all considering that disability is not aninability. Fromwhat I found, children with disabilities require support, equalopportunities with others and specialized structures and facilitiesto improve their education (Cowdery and Allen 15). The children on awheelchair require rumps to ease their movement to classes on higherfloors. One should also take note of the slow learners and give themspecial attention at their pace of grasping. That way, no one is leftbehind in concepts. I feel that the blind and deaf should attendspecial schools where they are taught with Braille and signsrespectively. The short-sighted learners should sit at the frontwhile the long-sighted sit at the back to enhance comfortabledistance of studying.

Childassessment and evaluation is the testing of all levels ofunderstanding that a child is exposed to. Inmy opinion, child development and comprehension should be assessed,and I will work to achieve this in my profession. Apart from thecontinuous assessment tests, there should be other ways of evaluatingthe level of understanding of the child (Goffin 34). The practicalevaluation that is academically important should not be left out.Children should also be given an assignment so that the teacher knowsif some concepts are acquired. The exams should be child-centered andcurriculum based aimed at developing their comprehension skills,knowledge and understanding of the values acquired. According toGoffin (34), oral skills should also be assessed to determinelanguage acquisition

Familysupport and involvement is a supportive requirement in childhood.From my past experience, I have realized that families have a greatrole in a child`s development as it is the first environment a childis exposed to. The parents and the caretakers should help inenhancing the correct behavioral values as well as the correctlanguage (Martin and Richard 31). Since children pick behaviors fromthe adults, the adults should behave appropriately in the presence ofchildren so that the correct values are picked. Parents shouldencourage their children to acquire education through paying schoolfees as well as monitoring the homework.

Inconclusion child`s development and learning forms the basis of futureadults. Therefore, we as professionals should give children anexperience of quality education. The education should include theappropriate behavior and cultural values to ensure that we have amoral society. At the same time, all adults have a significant roleto play in determining the individual`s personality as the childrenpick behavior from the environment and adults.


Cowdery,Glynnis E, and K E. Allen. TheExceptional Child: Their Inclusion in Early Childhood Education., 2014. Print.

Gestwicki,Carol. DevelopmentallyAppropriate Practice (DAP): Curriculum and Development in EarlyEducation., 2014. Print.

Goffin,Stacie G. EarlyChildhood Education for a New Era: Leading for Our Profession., 2013. Print.

Martin,Carol L, and Richard A. Fabes. DiscoveringChild Development.Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co, 2009. Print.

Student`s Name

&quotOnGoing Home&quot by Joan Didion

In‘On going home,` Joan Didion identifies with the daily definitionof a family. The title of the article relates with the expectationson what one means by going home to a family. According to Didion, afamily, where the people one loves are, is the home and it is notdetermined by place. Didion has two homes that is where she grew upand her marital home that are two different places with differentcustoms and cultures. However, she focuses on her nostalgia for herchildhood home and her feelings about the place. The feelings areboth positive, but mostly negative though the place remains her home.The essay will discuss Joan`s central idea of a home.

Joandefines her home by explaining and distinguishing the home, she istalking about, particularly where her family lives and where she grewup (Hawkins and Robert 120). The vital distinction prepares thereader`s mind that there is a significant difference between the twoplaces. The difference becomes more apparent when she elaborates thateven the husband is never comfortable in this place she calls a homesince he is not used to the customs of the place. The primary reasonis that even his wife, Joan, changes her character to that of herpast which is particularly unfamiliar (Hawkins and Robert 120).However, to Joan, it is getting back to her past that she is veryfamiliar with. The home gives her a sense of her childhood that shecannot transmit to someone else, though she can comfortably fall backon it.

Theplace she calls home is dusty and poorly kept such that the husband‘wrote with his finger on surfaces all over the house` (Hawkins andRobert 120). The most surprising thing is that no one noticed thewriting as well as the dust. Her definition makes us realize hernegative feelings towards the place, though it bothers no one thatthe house is dusty. There are exclusive talks about the people thatthe family knows and their fate in mental hospitals, drunk-drivingcharges that are unpleasant to people not used to such characters. Itis of particular concern that individuals with the character arefound at Joan`s home. The home does not have desirable characters,but it still remains a home.

Joansays that &quotMarriage is the classic betrayal&quot meaning thatit makes someone abandon the old ways used to as a child and makessomeone embrace a new way of life (Hawkins and Robert 120). In hermarital home, the life is completely different from her marriagehome. Joan is also feeling guilty that she has to betray her daughtersince she cannot provide her with a ‘home`. She cannot provide aplace with cousins, natural environment such as rivers and picnics atthe river since things are different. All she can afford to offer isa funny story for bedtime and assume everything else that is notwithin their reach.

Joanalso takes us to the bedroom of her childhood. There is ‘a bathingsuit that she wore the summer she was seventeen, a letter ofrejection from The Nation that has no final solution, an aerialphotograph of the site for a shopping center my father did not buildin 1954 and she does and does not see her face` (Hawkins and Robert121). She says ‘that I am trapped in this particular irrelevancy isnever more apparent to me than when I am home` showing that despiteher trial to reconnect with her past, there are many difficulties andit is next to an impossibility (Hawkins and Robert 121).

Thewriter also tries to escape from the reality when she decides to makeher daughter`s first birthday party at her home. In a real sense,most of the first birthdays are done by both parents present. Thatspecial birthday is made by one parent absent and at a place wherethat particular parent dislikes. The action is deliberate to have himabsent despite his availability. Joan also dreads calls from herhusband that would get her to the reality that she does not want.That tells the reader that she is not comfortable with her presentjust like her past, however she cannot blend the two since it isimpossible.

Thewriter also says that she and her mother are &quotveterans of aguerilla war we never understood.&quot The war, she is referring tois the ambushing war of change where she and her mother had to changefrom their original homes to different homes (Hawkins and Robert121). It is a cultural war that they cannot win since they do noteven understand it. Joan feels that she even does not know how itcame to be, though she cannot escape from the reality no matter howshe dislikes it. The ending where Joan is reflecting on all thingsshe cannot give to her daughter makes one wonder what her currentlife, particularly marriage is like by comparison (Hawkins and Robert122). One wonders whether it is the reason as to why she makes theessay too short in order not to get to that part.

Inconclusion, the essay &quotOn Going Home&quot by Joan Didion showsthe writer`s feelings about a home. The disparity in the life she isliving in and her past has consumed her such that she focuses on theconflict and forgets to enjoy the reality. Despite the fact that itis apparent that she does not like her biological home, she does notlook forward to her marital home. She feels that it is a betrayal ofher childhood and looks into it with affection since it attaches herto the people she loves.


Hawkins,Rose, and Robert Isaacson. UncommonKnowledge – Exploring Ideas Through Reading &amp Learning.Wadsworth: Cengage Learning, 1996. Print.

Student`s name

TestingEffects of Enzyme Catalase on Different Temperatures

Enzymesare important catalysts in the chemical reactions that happen in thebodies of living organisms. They aid in reactions like digestion offood, conservation and transformation of chemical energy as well theconstruction of macromolecules inside the cells (Abuchowsky 3582).The enzyme catalase is critical and found in almost every livingorganism. Its work is to protect the cell from oxidative damage bydecomposing hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen (Sala &ampLafuente 85).

Allchemical reactions in the body require a particular temperature rangeto work optimally in the presence of a catalyst enzyme. The chemicalactivities that happen in the body cells produce hydrogen peroxide asa byproduct it is very poisonous and can kill the organism if notneutralized. The enzyme catalase quickly converts it to watermolecules and oxygen (Selman et. al. 1281).The catalase enzyme ismade up of four subunits each with an active site it has an iron asco-factor which it uses to break down the bonds of the two moleculesin the hydrogen peroxide.

Inthis experiment, we tested the effect of temperature on catalase whenreacted with hydrogen peroxide at different temperatures and the timeit took to finish the reaction. Because enzymes need highertemperatures to operate, we expected that the higher the temperature,the higher the rate of reaction. We also expected that since the bodytemperature ranges from 37ºC to 40ºC, the reaction would stop afterthe temperature was attained.


Weplaced four test tubes in a rack and labeled them as 1S, 2S, 3S andE we then added 5ml of distilled water to the test tubes 1S,2S, and3S using a clean syringe. After this procedure, we added 3ml of 3.0%hydrogen peroxide to test tubes 1S, 2S, and 3S. Finally, using thecleaned syringe, we placed another 5ml of catalase on test tube Ethen put the test tubes in water baths as follows:

• Tube1S on a 400ml beaker filled with ice and water to maintaintemperatures at 0-5ºC.

• Tube2S with no water bath because we wanted it to be at room temperature.

• Tube3S on a water bath at 30-35ºC

• TubeE on a water bath at 50-55ºC

Wethen waited for 10 minutes after placing the test tubes in the waterbaths before proceeding with the experiment. After the 10 minutes, wetransferred the contents of tube 1S to the 250ml Nalgene bottle andadded ten drops of catalase from tube E using a clean pipette. Usinga stopwatch we timed the rate of enzyme activity for the test tubeand recorded the findings in the table below. We then repeated thesame process for tube 2S and 3S while remembering to return tube E tothe water bath.


Slope (%/min) at each interval (minutes)

Test tube


0.5-1.0 min

1.0 min-1.5min





















Afterrecording the rates of reaction, we then filled a table with thetemperature and maximum average rates on a table as illustratedbelow.


Test tube level

Maximum rate (%/min)

Trial 1


Trial 2


Trial 3




Temperature :


Weobserved that the rate of reaction reduced momentarily as temperaturerose from 0ºC to about 26 ºC, from this point, the rate of reaction increasedrapidly again till it reached about 95 ºC. The rate of gas (oxygen)production actively increased and the volume increased with unitchange in temperatures. After the maximum temperature was reached,the rate of reaction decreased drastically almost to a standstill.The graph below illustrates the observations from the reaction.

Graph1: Rate of Reaction per Temperature Change


Inthis experiment, the catalase activity is measured and graphedagainst a range of temperatures with the hydrogen peroxide being thesubstrate for the catalase enzyme. The products of this reaction areoxygen and water. The decomposition can be simplified as follows.

2H2O2 CATALASE 2H20+ 02

Hydrogenperoxide water + oxygen

Thecatalase works normally between the temperatures of 25ºC and 90 ºC but a further increase leads to a decrease in thereaction rate. This can be explained by an increase in temperatureleads to an increase in kinetic energy between the molecules of theenzyme and the substrate, therefore the number of random collisionsenhances per unit time. As the substrate increasingly fits into theactive sites of the enzyme the reaction increases (Sala&amp Lafuente 87).This continues up to the moment the optimum temperature is attained. At this point, the increase in temperature only serves to break theweak bonds of the enzymes as they are chiefly made of proteins. Thisis referred to as denaturing and leads to loss of the active sites ofthe enzyme. It is inevitable that the reaction slows and stops onceall the enzymes have been denatured (Selmanet. al. 1284).These results support my first hypothesis which suggested that thereis an increased rate of reaction with an increase in temperature,however, the second hypothesis is supported only up to a certainpoint the reaction increases even with a further increase intemperature after 40ºC. We can conclude that the chemical reactionsin the body will continue even if the body temperature is surpassed(Abuchowsky3582).However, we can observe that having a high fever would limit thereactions in the body thereby reducing catalyst reactions.


Abuchowski,Abraham, et al. &quotEffect of covalent attachment of polyethyleneglycol on immunogenicity and circulating life of bovine livercatalase.&quotJournalof Biological Chemistry&nbsp252.11(1977): 3582-3586.

Sala,Jose M., and Marı́a T. Lafuente. &quotCatalase enzyme activity isrelated to tolerance of mandarin fruits to chilling.&quot&nbspPostharvestBiology and Technology&nbsp20.1(2000): 81-89.

Selman,Colin, et al. &quotEffect of long-term cold exposure on antioxidantenzyme activities in a small mammal.&quot&nbspFreeRadical Biology and Medicine28.8(2000): 1279-1285.

Student`s Name

Date Ayn Rand’sQuote: Reality and avoiding Reality

Ayn Rand’s quote refers to those people wholike to avoid doing things in due time. The quote also refers tothose who do not want to accept reality, even when laid bare beforetheir eyes. To those people, his message is clear-avoiding doing whatis expected of you is easy because it only involves making up yourmind (Quote Investigator 1). Reality does not necessarily meansomething tangible. It refers to all things (tangible and abstract)that are bound to happen because they are existent. Sometimesreality is painful to ingest. People may tend to avoid realitybecause it is painful to face or they are just too lazy to face it.Anything that is existent has its own consequences. They may bepositive, negative, or both, but they remain consequences.

Whenever people avoid something of importance,consequences are eminent. If a student avoids the reality of anapproaching deadline for a particular assignment, he will receive apenalty. Using Ayn Rand’s quote to describe the student’ssituation, he was at liberty to accept the reality of a loomingdeadline and act upon it, or ignore the deadline all together. Thestudent decided to ignore the deadline. The consequences for notmeeting the deadline are a deduction in the final mark. The studentcannot avoid the consequences of avoiding reality because he has nocontrol over the outcome of his behavior. The only chance he had atcontrolling the consequences was by accepting reality.

My Friend’s Uncle Sam is a perfect embodimentof this quote. His is a sad, but funny story as well. Sam happened toget married to this stunningly gorgeous woman who was definitely outof his league. Like the fool he was, he fell hopelessly in love withthis woman and decided that it was best if they got married afteronly three months of knowing each other. According to him, he did notwant to waste any more time, lest she realized what a loser he was.

Immediately after marriage, the reality beganto unfold. His gorgeous wife became rude. She would be dropped off ather matrimonial home by different men in fancy cars. She would leavefor alleged business trips in Miami without informing her husband.Whenever she was out of town, she would fail to respond to Sam’sattempt at initiating communication. The reality was all over foreveryone to see. However, Sam could not believe that the woman of hisdreams could be cheating on him, or worse still, maybe she neverloved him in the first place. He kept holding on saying that if sheagreed to marry a man of his caliber, then she must have really beenin love with him.

As it turns out, his gorgeous wife worked foran escort service. She was married to three other men as well. Samentered a phase of depression that almost killed. She also gave himherpes and HIV.

Sam decided to ignore reality by continuing tobe married to the woman even when she treated him like a worthlessperson. Despite advice that he got from people, Sam decided to ignorereality. The consequences of ignoring reality were depression, herpesand HIV. Had he acknowledged the reality, maybe he would be neverhaving been depressed or even contracted HIV and herpes.

Work Cited

Quote Investigator, 2016. Ayn Rand &quotYoucan avoid reality, but you cannot avoid the consequences of avoidingreality”.,Web, Accessed 15 March 2016,&lt

Student`s Name

Setout your work as neatly as possible and show all your reasoning,especially in those problems which require you to provide necessarystages in their solution.

1.Basic Algebraic reasoning

Giventhis rectangle:



Choosinga=5 b=4 the area is=axb= 5×4=20

Perimeteris (a+b) 2=perimeter 2(5+4)=18

Thediagonal (d) of the rectangle shown can be found from the equation

d2= a2+ b2Deduce the diagonal of yourrectangle.

52+42=41square root of 41=6.4cm

Ifyour values of a and b were to be doubled, what would be the newvalues for the perimeter and area?

If5 and 4 were double then the area would be 5×2×4×2=80cm2

theperimeter would be (10×2+8×2)=36cm

Ifyourrectangle were to have the same area as a square, what would be theperimeter of the square?




2.Basic Graphing

Lookat this mathematical relationship: Y = mX + c

Chooseany two simple values of m and c. They can be positive or negativeand they need not necessarily be whole numbers. So, for example, ifyou chose m = 2 and c = – 1.5 then your equation would be Y = 2X –1.5

(i)Copy and complete this table for yourequation:





















(ii) From your equation, deduce the value of X when Y = 0 using the givenequation as my equation y=2x-1.5 when the value of y=o










(iii)Plot a graphof your equation.

1 2 3 4

-4 -3 -2 -1






3.Basic Algebra

Solvethese equations……..

(a)2x = 5 x=2.5

(b)2x = 0.5 x= 0.25

(c)2x – 0.5 = 0.5 x= 0.5

(d)2x – 0.5 = 0.5x x=0.3

(e)2x + 10 = 7x 7x-2x=10 x=2

(f) 2x + 10 = 7x – 5 10+5=7x-2x 15=5x x=3

(g)2(x + 10) = 3x + 8 2x +20=3x+18 20-18=3x-2x x=2

(h)2(x + 10) = 5x – 19 2x +20=5x-19 20-19=5x-2x 1=3x x=1/3

(i)5(x – 4) = 3(x + 6) 5x-20=3x+18 5x-3x=20-18 2x=2 x=2

(j)5x2+ 3 = 23 5x2/5=26/5 x2=5.2x=2.28

Considerthis general equation: 3x + A = 5x – B

Chooseany two simple values of A and B and write down your own equation.Solve it.

3x+5=5x-1=5x-3x=5=1 2x=6 x=3

4.Further Algebraic reasoning

  1. The sum of four consecutive numbers is 74. What are the numbers?17, 18, 19 ,20





x+1=6+1=17and then you substitute for all numbers.

(b)In6 years’ time, Lucy’s age will be twice the age she was 11 yearsago. How old is she now?





(c)Arectangle of perimeter 64cm has dimensions x and (x -10). Deduce thearea of the rectangle.









(d)A rectangle has sides in the ratio 2:3 the area of the rectangle is150cm2.Find its perimeter.

Factorialsof 150are 2,3,5,5 if the ratio is 2 to 3 then the figures are 2×5and 3×5

=10 and 15



(e)Two numbers are in the ratio 7:11 and their sum is 72. What are thenumbers?

Thenumbers are divisible by 7 elimination method multiply the ratios byfigures from 1,2,3,…..infinity until u get your number luckily 4was satisfactory 4×7+11×4=72

4.Quadratic expressions

  1. Expand this statement: (x – 3)(x + 5)= x(x+5)-3(x+5)= x2+5x-3x-15x=


  1. Expand this statement: (x – 3)2 x(x-3)-3(x-3)=x2-3x-3x+9=


(c)Expand this statement: (a + b)(a – b)=a(a-b)+b(a-b)=a2-ab+ba+b2=


  1. Factorize this statement: x2 + 2x – 35= (7×5)=35 (7-5)=


  1. Factorize this statement: x2 + 2x +1=


(f)Solve this equation x2– 2x – 35 =


(g)Solve this equation x2+ 36 = 13x= X2-3x+36multiples of 36 which can be added into 3 is 4 and 9=


(h)Solve this equation x + 1 = 6/x= x(x+1)=6/x×x=



(i)By comparison with the expression ax2+ bx + c = 0 use an appropriate formula to help you to compute theroots of the equation: 4x2– 4.2x – 1.3 = 0

(i)The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers is 113. What arethe numbers? 72+82=113, 7 and 8

(j)Usingyour knowledge of factorizing, deduce the three roots of the cubicexpression

x3– 5x2+ 6x = 0)

dividethe whole figure by x=





  1. The sum of two numbers is 53 and the difference between them is 11. Find the numbers.










(b)Three cups of tea and four cakes cost £8.90 four cups of tea andthree cakes cost £8.60. What are the individual costs of a cup oftea and of a cake?



(c)Solve the following simultaneous equations:

(i) 2x + 3y = 29.1 (ii) 2u + v + 4 = 0

3x+ 2y = 25.4 3u – 2v + 13 = 0























(d)Giventhe equation y = x2– 2x copy and complete the following table…..

















Plota graphof this information. On the same graph paper, draw the horizontalline y = 1 and note the points of intersection that this line haswith your parabola. Explain how, by this process, you have indirectlyobtained approximate solutions to the equation x2– 2x – 1 = 0





1 234


-4-3 -2 -1





X=-1and 2

They=1 line intersect the parabola at points x=-1 and 2

Works Cited

Blyth, T S,and E F. Robertson. BasicLinear Algebra.N.p.,&nbsp2002. Print.

Student`s Name

TheRough Faced Girl

Whenthe word Cinderella is mentioned, a picture of a beautiful girl andmean sisters comes to everyone one who has ever watched Disney moviesof Cinderella and challenges that Cinderella went through beforemeeting and being reunited with her prince charming. Cinderella isdepicted as a girl with pure heart and optimism. Today Cinderellasymbolizes true love, patience, inner beauty and marriage in Americanculture. This is well elaborated by Steve Chapman Cinderella songwhich shows how the Cinderella wants to be taught how to dance forher wedding by her dad. There are various movies which could becalled Cinderella duplicate both animated and non-animated movieswhich have been reproduced trying to re-introduce the Cinderellatheme, of love, magic, evil sisters, perseverance, a good heart andfinally marriage.

Inmy essay, I will use the “The Rough-Face Girl” story to show howmodern stories share Cinderella themes and even similarities. Alittle insight into the Cinderella story, Cinderella was a beautifulgirl who had two wicked step sisters. She was treated unfairly by herfamily members. It happened that, in her village there was a dancethat was organized by the Prince and invited all girls of the countryto come to the palace so that the prince could choose a bride.Cinderella with the help of godmother, the magician, gets to thepalace and dances with the prince but because there was a conditionthat the magic would be off at a particular time she runs off andleaves one of her glass shoes behind which only her could fit. Theprince sought her in all the country in vain but later founds her,and they are married.

TheRough-Face Girl was a beautiful girl who similarly to Cinderella hadtwo wicked sisters. The sisters made her sit near the fires such thatshe got burns that ruined her beauty. In that village, there was aninvincible being that everyone wanted to marry and the one who couldmarry the being was the one who could see it. Many girls triedinclusive of the wicked sisters, but no one could see it. TheRough-Face Girl sought to marry the being upon coming close to thebeing domicile she was met by the being sister who saw her innerbeauty, her pure heart. The being sisters questioned her intentionsfor visiting, and she said to marry the being. The girl identifiedthe being, and she was married off to the adorable being thateveryone wanted to marry.

Bothstories share the theme of unfair life to the two girls in the storythere is also the theme of marriage in the story and perseverance,and a pure heart is stressed in the two narratives. The element magicappears too in the both stories. The girls always get married at theend of all the challenges they face. The differences are, thebridegroom is a prince in one story, and the other is an invisiblebeing. The face of one girl is burned while the other is not.

Thetwo stories seem to be passing a message to the girls, that no matterwhat happens in life you will always get your prince charming itdoesn’t matter about the situation you might be in.


Disney.&quotSteven Curtis Chapman – Cinderella.&quot YouTube.N.p., 7&nbspNov.&nbsp2013. Web. 12&nbspMar.&nbsp2016.

Shanon,David. &quotThe Rough Face Girl by Rafe Martin.&quot YouTube.N.p., 12&nbspOct.&nbsp2012. Web. 12&nbspMar.&nbsp2016.

&quotStevenCurtis Chapman – Cinderella.&quot YouTube. N.p.,5&nbspAug.&nbsp2009. Web. 12&nbspMar.&nbsp2016.

Student`s Name



  1. Lead in

  2. Transition

  3. Thesis statement: Reasons behind the emphasis on equality of opportunity is the practice of gender-based segregation in places of work, discrimination of people based on their social status and wealth, and the racial discrimination is seen in corporations.

  1. Body 1

  1. Topic sentence: Equality of opportunity is violated as gender segregation is practiced through the different ways of treating men and women while at work which needs to be eliminated.

  2. Explanation: The American’s mindset has it that both men and women were created equally.

  3. Evidence: A two-tiered system of training the American military promotes gender segregation.

  1. Body 2

  1. Topic sentence: Equality of opportunity is not upheld as people are discriminated based on their social classes.

  2. Explanation: Americans have the assumption that no matter how unfortunate one is, they deserve respectful treatment.

  3. Evidence: Decisions by school boards try to accommodate homeowners’ and parents’ demands hence lead to the development of school systems divided by social class. Hence, the poor children learn from different institutions not attended by the rich kids.

  1. Body 3

  1. Topic sentence: Equality of opportunity is not considered as racial discrimination is rampant, and equal treatment of both the natives and immigrants is not upheld.

  2. Explanation: All people should be treated equally because none is better than the other. People should be free to move in the country despite their races. However, this is not the case as the blacks end up being arrested or killed when going to certain areas.

  3. Evidence: In Florida, George Zimmerman shot an African-American teenager, Martin Trayvon. Zimmerman’s justification for this is that Martin looked suspicious to him upon entering the gated community. It, therefore, meant a black person did not belong there. He further told the police that the assholes always got away.

  1. Conclusion:

Violationof equality of opportunity occurs when gender-based segregation ispracticed in places of work. Men and women should be treated the samebased on their merit levels. People should not get victimized basedon their social status. Everyone has a chance to grow and become wellestablished.Racialdiscrimination should not be a basis to judge people since all racescan work well when given proper training and qualifications.

Equalityof opportunity

Fromthe book American Ways by Datesman,Crandall, and Kearny,six American traditional values are discussed, and the equality ofopportunity value is analyzed below. The Americans believe in theidea of equality and in their Declaration of Independence theystressed that all men are equal. They believe that none is bornsuperior to anyone else. The ideal is however violated in their dailylives in matters regarding relationships among people from variedsocial classes and interracial relationships. Three reasons behindthe emphasis on equality of opportunity are the practice ofgender-based segregation in places of work,discriminationof people based on their social status and wealth, and racialdiscrimination is in existence.Equalityof opportunity is violated as gender segregation is practiced throughthe different ways of treating men and women while at work whichneeds to be eliminated. The reason behind this is that the American’smindset has it that both men and women were created equally. However,the male tends to dominatetheworkplace as the environment is set up to aid white men to advancetheir careers instead of hard-working women. Due to this, females aretreated as the minoritybecausethey get fewer chances to advance their careers as compared to theless qualified males. A two-tiered system of training the Americanmilitary promotes gender segregation. Since they will end up workingin the same fields, they need training on the same grounds, that is,gender-neutral training.

Equalityof opportunity is not upheld as people are discriminated based ontheir social classes. Better treatment is given to the high profilepeople. They have the first chances to speak, loudly and longer.Americans have the assumption that no matter how unfortunate one isthey deserve respectful treatment.Decisions by school boards try to accommodate homeowners’ andparents’ demands hence lead to the development of school systemsdivided by social class. Hence, the poor children learn fromdifferent institutions not attended by the rich kids. The reason forthis is that parents from the high class never want their children toassociate with those from the low class.

Equalityof opportunity is not considered as racial discrimination is rampant,and equal treatment of both the natives and immigrantsis not upheld. All people should be treated equally because none isbetter than the other. People should be free to move in the countrydespite their races. However, this is not the case as the blacks endup being arrested or killed when going to certain areas. In Florida,George Zimmerman shot an African-American teenager, Martin Trayvon.Zimmerman’s justification for this is that Martin looked suspiciousto him upon entering the gated community. It, therefore, meant ablack person did not belong there. He further told the police thatthe assholes always got away.

Inconclusion, there is a violation of equality of opportunity whengender-based segregation is practiced in places of work. Both men andwomen are human and should, therefore, be treated the same based ontheir merit levels. People should not be segregated based on theirsocial status and wealth but should be given equal treatment.Everyone has a chance to grow and be well established.Therefore,one’s condition should not be despised. Racial discriminationshould not be a basis to judge people since all races can work wellwhen given proper training and qualifications.


Datesman,Maryanne Kearny, Jo Ann Crandall, and Edward N Kearny. TheAmerican Ways.Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents, 1998. Print.

Student`s Name

TheArt of Controversy- Dialect and Logic

TheArt of Controversy is a sarcastic piece of literature written byArthur Schopenhauer, analyzing how best one can counter an opponentin an argument without getting to physical confrontation. He uses thedialect in the analysis of how people can refute in instances of lackof consensus in a rational and civilized manner while stillexplaining the role of logic in unearthing truth. In this write-up,Schopenhauer summarizes a total of thirty eight stratagems/ methodsof how best to handle an opponent in a debate.

Schopenhauer’s use of dialect implies occurrence of an instancewhere two people get subjected to a discourse while holding variedpoints of view but still have the determination to determine thetruth via reasoned arguments. Through dialect which in literalmeaning can refer to meaningfully reasoned out debate, reason andlogic form a vital part of the argument. Logic on the other handrefers to the branch of philosophy that extensively covers the scopeof reasoning. In philosophy, logic is usually sub classified intoreasoning that is deductive, inductive and abductive through whichan argument is philosophically determined through its logical formwithout major focus on its actual content.

Accordingto Schopenhauer, every individual needs to systematically understandhow best to use dialect in all confrontational situations to helpallow truth to carry the day. Controversial dialect can severallycome to play when an individual knows the truth but lacks logicalways of explaining it out to help win the argument. In such a case,the opposing opponent equipped with logical explanation is likely tocarry the day despite proving right his wrong statement leading tothe wrong truth being appreciated as the correct. In this reference,Schopenhauer therefore emphasizes on the need of every person to bewell equipped with logic and dialect to help allow truth to alwaysmanifest. Dialect is thus outlined as the tool that allows one tocomprehensively get the best out of a dispute especially when he/sheis convinced to be right and never wants to be defeated.

Dialectis very important in a number of ways. To start with, unlike a debatewhere majority propositions carry the day, the outright truth carriesthe day provided a person equips himself with the sequential factsthat help iron out the actual truth. Dialect helps a person defendthemselves against false allegations in addition to helping avoidlosing contests. In the overall point of view, the major purpose ofdialect is summed up as the tool that helps get the best out of thedispute. This is because based on ones grounds of arguments he/sheis expected to seriously argue out his case to help proof his standto be the very best.

Ingeneral an argument can be dialectically argued in two ways the adrem, and ad hominem or ex concessis. Through this processes, weeither say that a proposition is either not in accordance with thenature of things in contention or it is inconsistent with otheralready outlined statements. Through this, an argument is counteredeither through direct confrontation or via indirect refutation. Thedirect process enables us ascertain that something is not true whilethe indirect argumentation process ascertains how a given statementor point of view cannot be true at all costs. The directargumentation process results in either the creation of premises orconclusions whereas the indirect argumentation process results ineither diversion or instance. Thus, the two ways of attacking anargument direct and indirect can be dialectically used to stronglyargue in support of your propositions.

Stratagemscommon tricks made with a strong intention to defraud people, many attimes after acquiring their confidence in the first instance.Stratagems are widely used in the exploitation of various humanpsyche characteristics such as honesty, irresponsibility, vanity,dishonesty, naivety, dishonesty and even greed. Schopenhauer in hiswritings came up with thirty eight stratagems that are commonly usedin the world today to defraud people. His first stratagem wasExtension.

Extensionis a stratagem that compounds the outright proposition of yourcolleagues’ pronouncements resulting in extensively expanding thembeyond natural limits. It is the tendency of pronouncing theopponent’s propositions beyond the possible appropriatesignificance with the intention of exaggerating the truth its selfbeyond levels of possible defense. When a person does extension, theylimit their own propositions to remain as narrow as possible whileblowing wide their opponent’s propositions because when aproposition is more general, it becomes tedious to defend it.Objections to various propositions increase as they become moregeneral and as a result, the narrow and more restricted propositionsget easily accepted with little objections. Thus, when one tries tomake an opponent’s argument more general while restricting his andmaking it more narrower, then they tend to commit the stratagem ofExtension.

Forexample, when I stated that Jamaicans were the best in athletic-relayraces in the whole world, my opponent in an attempt to shut me downasserted that they are the worst in marathon races. I countered inattack reminding him that marathon races are not part of that variousathletics races. His main intention of making such a claim was anattempt generalizing my proposition, and hence weakening my point ofthrough vulnerability to objections. This clarification helped me getoff his trap of attempting to weaken my point. Additionally, to helpme strengthen my point of view I could still narrow my point of viewmy stating the exact relay race that Jamaicans are the undisputedbest.

Homonymyis another type of a stratagem commonly used by Schopenhauer. It isthe second stratagem which refers to the trick of trying to make anopponent’s proposition look out of point or rather misplaced in avariety of ways. The process of refuting propositions by use of thehomonymy stratagem is based on the use of synonyms to make the actualstatement look obsolete. The opponent then claims success aftermisleading the actual meaning of the statement leading to itsnullification. For example, a person can state that the mass at thestadium was overwhelming. Then the opponent can effectively countersuch a proposition by saying that if it was just the mass u weretalking about then that is none of my business. It is automatic itwas to be several tonnes while in real sense the intention of thestatement was reference to a huge crowd.

Schopenhauer’sfifth stratagem was the use of earlier propositions that are not trueto help emphasize on the truth contained in the current proposition.Such propositions are used most often when the opponents seem not tobelieve the proposed truths. Through that, the false statements getused in the argument aimed at having the opponents clearly notice theerrors in their very convictions. This means that, through the exconcessis methodology, it is possible to use the false statement thatis true to the opponent to argue out the truth but the reverse is nottrue. This means that, you take the false propositions of theopponent that are true to him and then consider them as principlesupon which the real truth can be unraveled. For example, when aperson is convinced that God never exists because of reasons likehe/she has not seen Him, to it is upon you to build on his wronginterpretations and establish the real truth. Seeing God may neverhave been physically possible but in essence, the opponent needs tostrongly explain the many mysteries that happen and which he may haveexperienced. The mysteries are beyond human knowledge and thus arevelation that God indeed exists.

Hence,Schopenhauer made an outright attempt to explain how best argumentscan be refuted by use of logic and dialect. He explains the need andimportance of dialect in helping win confrontations in addition toaiding assisting establish the truth in a sequential manner.Schopenhauer further outlines the various tricks that people oftenuse in the world today in an attempt defraud others and stifle thetruth on several occasions, known as the stratagems. Thus,Schopenhauer’s works remain very relevant in the world today andhelp reiterate the need for dialect and logic in refuting variousarguments.